PSYC101 Study Guide Midterm 1
- 5 reasons why you should study development (Lecture 1)
o so, parents can understand how to raise children
▪ teach children to understand their emotions to control them
o learn about social policy and how to fix them
▪ child testimonies
▪ industrial revolution, prohibition of child labor under 10 in 1842
o diagnose health problems at an early age and how to fix them
o understand how the mind works: how we learn
o understand human nature: what makes us unique from other species?
- What is the history of developmental study? (Lecture 2)
o Starts with Ancient Egypt (630 BCE): Pharaoh Psalmtik II believed Phrygian was the
original language and tested it, but got a false conclusion that it was the original
language when raising children in a language free environment
- What are demand effects?
o Experimenter knows what they want to happen, so skews experiment in their favor
- What are controlled-rearing studies/deprivation studies? Examples?
o Seeing if depriving infants of certain experiences would cause them not to develop
certain abilities or behaviors
o Ex: raised kittens in the dark and found they didn’t develop depth perception, so you
need sight to develop depth perception
o Ex: kitten carousel. Found that kittens need to be able to move themselves to develop
o Ex: human Genie. Raised without language until 13. Could still learn vocab, but could no
longer learn grammar
- What philosophers were involved in developmental psychology? What were their beliefs?
o 340 BCE Aristotle: knowledge is from experience and teaching children should be based
on the needs of the child
o 340 BCE Plato: knowledge is innate; strict discipline is necessary
o Enlightenment 1600s-1700s Locke: nurture > nature; mind is a blank slate; need
experiences to learn
o 1800s Darwin: part of the movement for empirical research by observing children and
hypothesizing reasons for observed behavior
- What were theories of development? Who supported these ideas?
o 1850s Freud: believed that behavior was motivated by unconscious instincts. You were
guided by psychosexual drives, which change over your development. Good that he
introduced question of why children forget what happened during infancy, and
acknowledged implicit bias, and you should study the early mind. Bad that his theories
were vague and mostly unverifiable and focused too much on sex
o 1920s Behaviorists (Skinner and Watson): disagreed with Freud and that studies can
only be run through concrete observations. Children can be trained through punishment
and reward, and you need not study the mind. Children will always respond to reward
and punishment - What happened during the Cognitive Revolution? Who was involved?
o 1940s Chomsky: found that the mind was necessary to study because children develop
behaviors that they do not directly learn, like incorrect grammar
o Piaget: father of modern developmental psychology. Created many ways to test
children. Many incorrect conclusions, but many correct as well. Theory is that children
go through 4 stages of development and all go through these in the same order;
Learning is limited depending on the stage that they’re in
- Name the 6 major themes of developmental psychology
o Nature vs. nurture: both are present in the development of children, like with
o The active child: children actively promote their development through picking who to
interact with, attending to certain things, wanting to learn, etc.
o Continuous vs. discontinuous: continuous change is quantitative and discontinuous
change is qualitative. Can have both, like baby muscle growth and the milestones of
crawling to standing to walking
o The mechanism of child development: how and why change occurs. Through the brain
and genetic changes in the brain as experiences and learning occurs
o Socioeconomic context: children develop differently based on where and how they grow
o Individual differences: genetics, environment, treatment by other people
- What were the early ideas of prenatal development? (Lecture 3)
o Spermists vs. ovists: babies fully developed in the sperm/ovum
- What are the current ideas of prenatal development?
o Qualitative/discontinuous change: After conception, cells divide and differentiate into
different systems and become an embryo, which develops into the fetus
- What happens during conception? Why are males more common than females?
o Natural selection; healthiest sperm penetrates egg and egg releases chemical to prevent
any other sperm from attaching. Y chromosomes are smaller than X chromosomes, so
male sperm (XY) are faster than females (XX) and penetrate the egg more quickly.
However, more susceptible to X-linked traits, because there’s no dominant X
chromosome to override the recessive traits
- What are the 4 major processes of embryo development?
o Cell division, cell migration, cell differentiation, and cell death
- When does learning begin? What senses are used to learn?
o 28 weeks after conception, when fetus has developed a brain, eyes, ears, nose, etc.
o Sight is limited because mainly in the dark
o Motor skills are high: thumb sucking and kicking occur
o Taste: remember taste/smell in amniotic fluid based on carrot juice experiment
o Sound: remember/prefer sounds based on cat in the hat experiment
- What are teratogens? Examples?
o Environmental agents that can produce harm during prenatal development
o Ex: thalidomide was anti-nausea medication, causing no limb formation
o Ex: Zika in mosquitoes cause smaller head and less brain development
o Alcohol is most common: FAS with deformed facial features and attention problems
o Positive: folic acid protects against neural tube defects - What’s the difference between sensation and perception? (Lecture 4)
o Sensation is experience what the senses give you; perception is understanding and
interpreting these experiences
- What’s instinct blindness?
o You think something that comes easy to you is easy, forgetting that it is complex
- What are the levels of perception?
o Low-level: foundational, closest to senses
o mid-level: patterns, depth, objects
o high-level: recognition, inter-modal processing
- What were certain people’s