[PSYC 122] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (145 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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PSYC 122
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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103- lect 2
Darwin published 1859- the origin of species
-very controversial-
-say ev. Is a theory- and other ideas are out there- intelligent design
what is a theory?
-science advances through process of conjecture and re-----
-a set of hypotheses that are falsifiable-
-cant contrast them- creationism cannot be falsifiable therefore cant be presented
as an alternative to evolution
-natural selection can be tested- vs. system of beliefs
what is evolution?
-DEF: a change in the genome of a population of organisms over generations
-when Europe came to certain contexts- changed the genome
-ripe fruit gene vs. no ripe fruit
how does this take place?
What are the mechanisms of evolution?
-darwin and Alfred russel wallace
-darwin was rich guy was really interested in animals and naturalistic studies
-collected specimens- naturalist sailed for 5 yrson HMS beagle
-galapagos islands
-finches- looked similar but slight variants of some original formal- dif seeds- dif beaks
etc
-none of early work was evo. It was just
-returned 1836,,, was published 1859- 20 yrs of thinking about it-
-he waied long because his fam was religious- etc
-published it because Alfred russel Wallace
-inspired by Darwin- Malaysia
-lush then ocean and dry because of weather patterns
-wallace sent him a letter about the means of selection-scared someone would
scoop it
-presented manuscripts to linnean society
-tenets of slection(not ev. Mechanism of ev)
1. variability in a trait across a population
2. heritability of the trait
3. differential reproductive success---- (based on variants of successful survival)
(some will get eaten and others will pass on their genes to next pop)
natural selection- operates on traits that increase the likelihood of individual survival
peter and rosemary grant
continuous stydy of darwins finches since 1973
-annually capture tag and measure birds on one island:
-1970s island received regular rainfall
-1977 major draught with 85% died- major selection event
-larger body size were the ones who survived to pass on genese
-generations that followed had noticeably larger body size
-didn’t last forever-
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sexual selection
-like peacock feathers- more likely to get eaten but serves an individual-
The classic main goal of the theory of sexual selection is to explain the existence
of such traits, the detailed mechanisms by which they are favored and their oxxurrence and
variation among organisms.
Sex. Selection-opeates on traits that increase likelihood of reproducing
Whereas natural selection- operates on individual survival
-tenets are same for both
-the descent of man-
intrasexual selection- competition between members of the same sex for access to mates
intersexual selection- choosing a mate
intra sexual selctionbower birds- male ower birds build intiricate bowers, decorate in
order to attract females
since intrasexual compettion creates variability of particular trait, individuals must be
able to distinguish between them (i.e. mate choice)
intersexual selection
fluctualitng asymmetries (FA) deviations in the expression of a symmetrical
characteristic
-barn swallows- cut the tail- mates like symettru
facial symmetry
-considered an attractive feature in humans
-women are better at detecting and new bowns will prefer symmetrical over asymmetrical
mechanisms of evolution: gene flow
-the passive movement of genetic material from one population to another
-gene flow between old world and new world populations , birds and all sorts of animals
out there
another mechanism- mutation
-most studies are on drosophila-
-mutations typicall occur as replication errors
-though viruses, chemical and radiation can cause genetic mutations
the vast majority of mutations are not successful
-the indiciual dies early in life or is unable to reproduce
-mutations that are not deleterious typically manifest as only small changes in
phenotype
-this effectively increases variability in the pipulatio, which selection can
then act on
mechanism : founders effect
-seperation of particular population from larger population
-pennsylvania amish
-polydactylty- 6 fingers- now over represented
Interactions between the mechanisms
Evolution
Mechanisms typically don’t work in isolation
-tungara frog
-at night males go down to edge of water- and start call- telling
females they are sexy
-females are into chucs- place at end (sexual selection)
-will always go to one with more chuchs
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