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University of California - San Diego
SOCI 139
Vanesa Ribas

1. Conflict theory of class relations vs. Functionalist theory of stratification (Marxists analysis of class a. That there is a disconnect between the rewards of a certain employment and the prestige it has or is considered in society. b. toward change, not the status quo same goal as functionalism: general theory about everything in societyg is based on money, wealth and economic power oriented c. Functionalist - The first ones are going to be awarded more than the latter. In society it is structured as such because it’s functional. In order to get the right people to fill the right positions you need to have differential rewards. Classes stand antagonistically in relation to each other. Positions that are an antagonistic relation to each other. 1. Example - they have, objectively speaking, different (opposing) interest. This class offers a certain economic position that offers more to this “class” and is dependent on it. Karl Marx - analysis of history that had class struggle as the chief motor. the move from a feudal system to a capitalist system having been the result of. 2. Feudal - was the old way with lords and serfs 3. Invention of new systems of agriculture and etc. sparked capitalism. So once technological productions changed, that precipitated the changes in the relations. a. No more Lords but workers and the Capitalists being at the top (The owners and leaders) b. Workers own nothing but their own labor power. Only way of gaining subsistence is by selling their ability to work. 4. Exploitation a. Capitalist and proletarian need each other/have opposing interests b. Lopsided balance of property, rights, and c. Capitalist appropriate fruit of proletarian labor. i. Workers get paid an hourly wage. ii. Factories get the several millions from the production/sale of the products you had a hand in production. 5. Marx thought that gradually little by little, “the petty bourgeoisie” (independent storekeeper) that person was going to widdle away. a. The development of 2 classes. 6. RECAP: Marx viewed what's going on in the economic realm in terms of the various groups on how they are aligned with each other. From Feudalism (manors, serfs, feudal estates) in exchange for military support to get land. a. Also giving a percentage of whatever the lord needed that you produced on that land. b. people were bound NOT by choice but by obligation to certain estates c. The transition to capitalism occurred because the means of production, the tool and instruments that society used to make the stuff that they need and want had changed. d. Industrial revolution - cotton gin, steam engined, all these different technological revolutions that took place meant that the kinds of relations that feudalism entailed and required no longer was needed. e. It required masses of laborers and different ways of production and did not need these isolated feudal estates. f. It is about the relations changing after the technological instruments have changed. g. Marx thought that progressively over time the classes and society would be a working class and a capitalist class. i. Capitalist Class - consisted of people who owned these instruments of productions. 1. Not just owned the means of production but hired people to use the means of production. (Employed these working class) ii. Working Class - no longer had plots of lands with subsistence farms 1. Now they had to leave the country farms and go to cities and seek enormous factories. The middle in-class consisted as a small shop keeper. (The small bourgeoisie) But the shopkeeper was falling away slowly and a neighborhood shopping store would erupt. 7. The Schmoo is a magical character that turns into your basic and natural substance. (Food, water, basic human sustenance) a. In the parable of the Shmoo, the capitalist have a very different disposition toward the existence of this mystical creature than the workers do. Capitalist see the Schmoo in a very different way than the workers. b. Proletarian wants everyone to have the schmoo and the least is that nobody gets it. c. Capitalist say only they want it and the least thing they want it the workers getting a schmoo. d. Contemporary division of classes in society today. Bowles and Gintis talk about the difference of middle-class children and that their educational system is structured so that they have freedom of class participation, a lot less supervision and begin with.urriculars. Unlike the middle-class system, the lower-income schools will focus on structure and behavioral programs that restrict and bound those who are not used to order to 8. Melissa Nobles analysis on race a. There is a tendency of “presentism” - the tendency to see and understand the current state of racial structure and categories. b. Having been the same, not just natural or having been passed down from generations to generations. c. Primarily for nobles, race is inherently a political category. i. It is in some sense how we understood in our daily lives the particular way of thinking of race that is part of ethnic background. ii. Census - smaller subsets of institutions or domains where race is constructed the census is also a political instrument. 1. Categorizes the way we think in this thing called “race” a. It counsels in particular ways in which way they become socially accepted views of what race is and what categories constitute true racial divisions in society. 2. Mental Illness in the north and south. (Freed slaves in the north had a higher account of mental illness, therefore, should NOT be free. a. Blacks who were free had higher rates of insanity than black who were enslaved, therefore, slavery was a beneficial institution. b. Clearly a political tool 9. Class shapes cultural and social aspects of life. a. Bourdieu's theory is not opposed to Marxian theory of class relation. i. It is relatively consistent or compatible. But it takes it quite a ways further. ii. Where as Marx was primarily concerned with how material conditions directly impacted particular outcomes and positions with respect to class interest. b. Bourdieu is more interested in how it affects the ways in which people form dispositions and orientations. World views, preferences, lifestyles. c. Primary marxian theories of class relations - they are antagonistic. i. They have opposing interests, which situates them into the antagonistic ii. Crucial Marxian concept with respect to class theory is the concept of exploitation. d. Bourdieu’s theory has Habitus i. Habitus: dispositions how class is internalized 1. A means in which class is reproduced - intergenerational 2. Socialization 3. attitudes, worldviews, beliefs,orientations, preferences, symbols, appearances, mannerisms, values. 4. People’s ways are conditioned by this Habitus ii. Direct views of cultural and class are related to the economic condition of class 1. What resources they have or don't have 2. People have agency - people develop preferences - rationalizations - but not also reducible to material resources 3. Five years ago Starbucks was still not as mainstream how it has become. Latte at starbucks is a fancified symbolized mode of consumption. But it has now trickled down to the masses and is no longer a rarified social context iii. Example two groups of disadvantaged boys 1. Came up in the same area - family structures - income / socioeconomic status 2. Control for all these factors their economic conditions of existence 3. the lines of 1 key difference.s of these two groups of boys - they are relatively similar but we are going to compare them, however, along a. The kinds of aspirations between the two boys b. Aspirations are a one key element iv. So Bourdieu divides within broad classes different strata. 1. Factory owners and professionals and lawyer 2. variety and the intellectual class of the teachers -- college professors. 3. White color office clerical workers -
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