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ANFS 345 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Metabolism, Epithelium, Diffusion


Department
Animal and Food Sciences
Course Code
ANFS 345
Professor
Ryan Arsenault
Study Guide
Midterm

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ANFS 345

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ANFS 345
Introduction to Animal Physiology
General overview of physiologic principles
The study of body functions relative to an animal's environment
Physiology
Is complex and interconnected
Ex. stress response
Counteracts other functions
Integrative
Epigenetics
Genes MOLECULAR
proteins/enzymes
Cells
Tissues
Organs ANATOMIC
Systems
Populations
Inquisitive
Mechanism
Reason
Structure
Evolutionary origin
How?
Natural selection
Increase in frequency of genes leading to traits that enhance
ability to survive AND reproduce
Adaptation
The mechanism of trait produced by selection within a given
environment
How + Why?
Two approaches to the subject
Mechanistic approach
Knowing mechanism does not necessarily contribute to
understanding of reason
Evolutionary physiology
Knowing reason does not necessarily imply mechanism
Comparative
This approach shows similarities and differences across animal species
for a given function
Stable
Homeostasis
Internal constancy in the face of external change
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Regulation
Interconnected systems that adjust to maintain a steady state
Adjusting to Environment
Regulation
Internal held constant in spite of external change
Requires greater energy
Cells protected
Conformity
Internal conditions to external
Less energy expenditure
Cells may be damaged due to change in internal
environment
Feedback Loops
Controlled variable
Property being maintained (ex. temp)
Set point
Level at which the controlled variable should be maintained
Negative feedback
Response signal that returns parameter toward steady state
Positive feedback
Response signal that compounds original deviation from steady
state
Dynamic
Changes with
time/age
Energy availability
Body size
Environment (internal/external)
Time for changes
Acute responses
Body change in individual over minutes to hours
Chronic response
Body change in an individual over days to years
Evolutionary response
Change in population over generations (genotypic changes)
Physiology can vary even when environment stays the same
Developmental changes
Occurs over the maturation and life stages of the animal
Periodic change/ biorhythm
Repeating patterns of changes occur via internal biological
“clocks” (daily, seasonal)
Plasticity
Ability to change phenotypes to better suit an environment
Acclimation
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Chronic responses to limited environmental changes
Acclimatization
Responses to multiple variables in natural environment
(temp, altitude, weather)
In physiology - size matters
Animals energy depends on food availability and nutrient content
Animal + Environment
Leading to physical/behavioral response or direct modification of
environment
Environment
Main variables
Temp
Oxygen
Water
Microenvironment
Place within a larger environment where physical or chemical conditions
differ
Microclimate
Place within a larger environment where climatic conditions differ
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