[ANTH101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 45 pages long Study Guide!

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ANTH101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 4
-medical, nutritional, and reproductive anthropology all combine biological and cultural anthropology;
they represent three of the most rapidly growing research areas in the discipline
Medical Anthropology
the health status of an individual or a population is a result of many complex interactions between
the physical environment, the biological environment, genetic factors, and cultural factors
Distinction between:
Illness: idiiduals’ sujetie epeiee of how they feel
Disease: the western scientific (theoretically more objective) diagnosis of what is causing the illness
Sickness: how patient are supposed to actthe role they are expected to take in interactions with other,
including healing experts
Distinction between:
Injuries: broken bone or a cut
Systematic diseases: polio or influenza
Conditions: color-blindness or albinism
World health organization classification:
Impairment: any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function
Disability: any restriction or lack (resulting from impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the
manner or within the range considered normal for human being
Handicap: disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability,that prevents
the fulfillment of a role that is considered normal for that individual
Equation of Human Health and Medical Care divisions
1. Ultimate causes= explanation of why (reason someone was injured, became sick, died, born w/,
developed particular condition)
Examples aidet, fate, god’s ill, eil itetios of supeatual eig, othe huas
2. Proximate causes= explanation of how (the mechanism by which someone was injured, became sick,
died, born w/, developed particular condition)
Examples car accident, dog bite, infection/ virus or bacteria
3. Natural coping mechanism of the body(genetic and physiological)
4. the cultural coping mechanism available to individual and/or group (systems of medical beliefs and
practices)
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Perso’s state of health is deteried by the complex interactions between the physical and biological
environments, genetic factors, and cultural factors
Western Biomedicine (WBM) vs. Traditional or Alternative Medicine
WBM: tends to focus on proximate causes, with therapies aimed at counteracting the proximate causes
-loosely based on scientific research and evidence
Traditional: focus on ultimate causes, with therapies aimed at strengthening the natural coping
mechanisms of the body
-not solely based on superstition and hocus-pocus
*effective treatments do not necessarily hinge on knowing the exact physical or physiological
mechanisms of either disease or cure*
Ultimate Causes
-many societies around the world believe that nothing happens without a reason; it has to have a cause,
there is no possibility of an accident, coincidence or bad luck
Violation of Taboo
-person violated a taboo or rule of proper behavior
-did not follow rules of society and that resulted in injury or illness
-may be unintentionally done or intentionally done under the impression they can get away w/it
Supernatural Intervention
-god, goddess, ancestor spirit, ghost demon, nature spirit harms person through injury, illness,
or death
-Mudok: spiit aggessio attiutio of illess to the diet hostile, aita, o puitie
atio of soe aleolet o affoted supeatual eig
Human intervention
-some people may harm others for different reasons (emotions)
-can be done through magical means: witchcraft, sorcery, or straightforward harming person
“tuff Happes
-attiute iju o illess to the luk of the da
-predestination, fate, bad luck, accident/coincidence
-ould’t peet it; o oe’s fault
Proximate Causes
Physical Environment
-all non-living components of environment
Water: precipitation (lack), contamination
Temperature: seasons, duration of extreme temps; can cause heat stroke,
hypothermia, frostbite
Sunlight: lack of it affects physical/mental health, ultraviolet radiation differ w/
altitude/latitude; too much UVlack of folic acid exposure=folic acid
deficiencies; too little UVlack of vitamin D; needed for calcium absorption
-available sunlight, hours of sunlight, angle of sun all influence what sort of plants and animals
can survive in environment; sunburn, skin cancer (sun): depression, rickets (lack of sun)
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