[BISC207] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (77 pages long!)

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BISC207
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1
The Big Ideas:
What are the characteristics of life?
How do we study life?
The unity and diversity of life are explained by evolution
1. O2(take in (final e- acceptor in OP)) + CO2 (release cellular respiration)
If you use O2 you are aerobic
Anaerobic- human muscle
How to identify if organism is still alive?
-Energy use (metabolism)
Byproducts
-mass (complex structure)
Cell-prokaryotic
Virus- nucleic acid ← protein ← membrane
-reproduce
-evolve: show changes in genetics at the population level
Life is:
Structurally complex
Uses energy
Changes and responds to input/information
Reproduces
Evolves (at the population level)
2. Studying life using the Scientific Method
Observations → hypothesis → prediction → more observations (maybe from
experiments)(maybe change or reject your hypothesis)(if lots of observations support a
hypothesis, the hypothesis becomes a theory)
3. The unity and diversity of life are explained by evolution
Evolution:
Changes in the genetics of a population over time
There was a single origin of life, and thus all life forms share some characteristics
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New species arose by the divergence of populations over time
Evolutionary relationships of life based on DNA analysis
Single bacteria
origin of archaeans
life
Eukaryotes
Time
Bacteria and Archaeons look alike, but archaeons have more in genetically in common with
eukaryotes
Archaeons have more in common with eukaryotes than prokaryotes
Differences due to genetic material
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