[BUAD473] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (26 pages long)

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BUAD473
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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I. Attitude Formation & Change: High Consumer Effort
Attitudes: a relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person,
or action
o Global: general/overall impression
o Enduring: differentiates attitudes/moods; moods=ambiguous,
attitudes=focused on specific thing
o Guide our thoughts, influence our feelings, affect our behavior
Effects of Motivation on Attitude Formation
o Elaboration Likelihood Model: different info affects the impact of attitude
formation/what motivates it
Example: Dog Food Ad w/ picture of dog
o Central-route to persuasion: high motivation; tend to be motivated to read the
words; logic
o Peripheral-route to persuasion: not too motivated; more image/picture focused;
emotion
High Effort-Cognitively Based Theories of Attitude
o High-Effort Cognitive Example: IRA Ad; if motivated to understandwilling to
read
o High-Effort Affective Example: Google emails w/ dad emailing daughter
everyday; emotional energy w/ commercial
o TORA: Theory of Reasoned Action; Expectancy-Value Model: AttitudeBehavior
Salient beliefs: initial thoughts about something;
strength*evaluation=average opinion (behavioral intention)
Subjective norms: external factors; strength*motivation to comply=SN
Bottom Line=Average Opinion + SN
Positive # = buy
Negative # = do not
Attitude Change Strategies
1) Change belief strength: try to change weaker held beliefs to higher #s
2) Change evaluations: go after weaker evaluations
3) Add a new salient belief: have them think of new aspect
4) Add a new normative belief: new external factor
o Cognitive Response Model: customers have reactions to marketing messages
while engaged with them; convincing themselves what their attitude is while
engaged
Support arguments: agree w/ commercial; favorable attitude towards
product
Counterarguments: not believing ad/negative commentsnegative
attitude
Source derogations: negative comments about messenger delivering the
message
II. Attitude Formation & Change: Low Consumer Effort
Central vs. Peripheral Routes
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o Marketers can predict which route will be followed based on the product &
seeing if high/low involvement
o Route impacts message strategy because central=logic while affective=emotion
o Maketig essages ae ot euall pesuasie egadless of osues’
motivation level
Ad Factors Affecting Brand Evaluation
o Message Factors
Argument Strength: brand claim
Strong argument example: no contract required for cell phone
Weak argument example: cell phone can send/receive texts
Number of Arguments: few v. many
o Ad Factors
Irrelevant Celebrity vs. Non-Celebrity
Irrelevant=irrelevant to product; example: sports celeb endorsing
retirement fund
o Elaboration Likelihood Model: motivation impacts what one elaborates on
Low Motivation: tangential aspects; ad picture; # of arguments is most
important
Cognitive Bases for Low-Motivation Attitudes:
1) Heuristics: price quality=higher price means higher quality,
frequency = # of arguments means more persuasive
2) Simple Inferences: categorization = inferences about
attributes lead to expectations; example: office picture w/
duck
Affective Bases for Low-Motivation Attitudes:
1) Mood: increase accessibility of mood congruent thoughts
a. Positive mood increased accessibility b/c shining
light on positive info in long-term memory
b. Biasing effect on attitudes
c. Negative article evaluated ad more negatively (vice
versa for positive article/ad)
d. Pervasive: impacts everything
2) Classical Conditioning:
a. Meat = unconditioned stimulus
b. Salivate = unconditioned response
c. Bell had zero response; after 3 combos of meat & bell
salivation
d. Bell = conditioned stimulus
e. Salivation = conditioned response
3) The Mere Exposure Effect: exposure facilitates subsequent
processing; without memory for the stimulus, this ease in
processing is misattributed as liking
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