CGSC378 Study Guide - Spring 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Muscle, Vocal Folds, Larynx

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CGSC378
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Anatomy vs. Physiology
Anatomy: study of the structure of an organism
Physiology: study/function of the living organisms and its parts, as well as the chemical processes
involved
Descriptive Anatomy: description of body parts without disease conditions
Clinical Anatomy: application of anatomical study for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Pathological Anatomy: changes in structures as the relate to disease
Gross vs. Microscopic Anatomy
Developmental Anatomy: growth and development of the organism from conception throughout the
lifespan
Cytology and Histology: study cells and tissues
Myology: examines muscle form and function
Arthrology: study of the joint system for bones
Osteology: study of form/function of bones
Neurology: study of diseases of the nervous system
Planes Tissues and Terms
Perspective
context surrounding focus will change perception
Anatomical Position: default—> body is erect and the palms, arms and hands face forward
axial skeleton: head/trunk with spinal column as axis
appendicular skeleton: includes lower and upper limbs
neuroaxis: axis of the brain (takes a T formation after neurological changes)
spinal cord and brain stem have a dorsal (back) and ventral (front) surfaces corresponding to those
of the surface of the body
because the cerebrum folds forward, the dorsal surface is also the superior surface and the ventral
surface is also the inferior surface
sensitive to physical orientation: vertical , horizontal
NOT sensitive to orientation: frontal, coronal and longitudinal (axes)
Planes
Transverse: divides higher from lower in bipeds (bottom and top half)
Saggital: divides right from left (hemispheric)
Coronal (a.k.a frontal): parallel to forehead, at right angle to saggital cut)
anterior/ventral (both refer to front side of the body)
posterior/dorsal (both refer to back sides)
rostral: toward the head—> refers to a structure anterior to another
Oblique: heart, internal obliques in abdomen (across body on a diagonal)
Terminology: Surfaces (all relative)
anterior vs. posterior
toward the front vs. toward the back
superior vs. inferior (refer to actual present position of body rather than a description based on
anatomical position)
upper vs. lower
used in situations when gravity is important
external vs. internal
toward the outside surface of the body vs toward the inside tissues of the body
medial vs. lateral (orientation of a structure relevant to another structure, disregarding anatomical
position)
toward the midline (center of your body) vs. away from the midline
proximal vs. distal (ex. shoulder is proximal to elbow)
toward the trunk vs toward the extremity
superficial vs. deep
toward the surface vs. away from the surface
dorsal vs. ventral
backside vs. belly side
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transverse vs. oblique
across vs. diagonal
cranial (rostral) vs. caudal (refer to actual present position of body rather than a description based
on anatomical position)
heads vs. tails
congenital vs. acquired
assumed to be present at birth vs. resulting from accident, illness or faulty learning
peripheral vs. superficial
away from the center vs. confined to the surface
“deep to another”
closer to the axis of the body
Reorient
quadriped (four legged animals)
dorsal superior to ventral
extremities
plantar (foot) and palmar (hand) vs. dorsal (bony side of each)
Parts of the Body
Trunk
thorax: chest region
abdomen: region represented externally as the belly
Dorsal Trunk
back
pelvis: area of hip bones
Skull
cranial portion: houses the brain and its components
facial portion: houses the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity and structures related to the upper airway
and mastication (chewing)
Upper and Lower Extremities
Cavities in which the Organs Reside:
cranial cavity: brain
vertebral canal: spinal cord
thoracic cavity: lungs and related structures
pericardial cavity: heart
abdominal cavity: digestive system
Describing Movement
flexion vs. extension
curl vs. stretch
dorsiflexion vs. plantar flexion
toward the dorsum of the foot vs. toward the sole of the foot
abduction vs. adduction
away from vs. together
medial vs. lateral rotation
circular movement toward vs. away from the midline
prone vs. supine (refer to actual present position of body rather than a description based on
anatomical position)
on the belly (ventral) vs. on the back (dorsal)
opposition
the opposable thumb
Cells
living, organized protoplasm
differ based on types of tissues they comprise
“living”
irritability: potential to react to external environment
growth=positive change
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Document Summary

Rounded projections (off main trajectory/surface of the bone: trochanter (largest, tubercle (medium, tuberosity (smallest, 2. Fissure: crack or deep groove in a bone, 2. Foramen: little/big hole or perforation in bone, foramen magnum: hole at the bottom of your skull where the medulla narrows out, becomes the spinal cord, and exits the skull (cns exits the skull, 3. *olfactory nerve: afferent, mediates sense of smell through sensors within nasal cavity (sensory), affects taste perception, important to eating and swallowing: ii. Oculomotor nerve: efferent, mediates eyeball movement and accommodation to light: iv. Trochlear nerve: efferent; moves eyeball down: v. *trigeminal nerve: mixed; mediates sense of touch for face (sensory -ophthalmic branch= upper face, maxillary branch= lower face), controls many muscles for chewing (motor, maxillary branch, vi. *vestibulocochlear nerve: (sensory) mediates sound from cochlea to brain stem (auditory nerve); transmits info from vestibular (balance) system: ix.

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