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GEOL120 Midterm: GeologicalHazards-Exam2

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Arthur Trembanis

Geological Hazard Test 2 Volcanoes Magma Composition o O, Si, Fe, Al,Mg, CO2, H2O o Viscosity based on silica Temp: 700C1200C Types o Basaltic Low in SiO2, Lowest viscosity, convergent, sheild o Andesitic Medium SiO2, stratovolcanoes, subduction o Rhyolitic High SiO2, highest viscosity, hot spot Geothermal Gradient, radioactive decay is source of heat o On the line, all the weakest materials liquefy 3 Processes o Volatiles (Partial Melting) During process will change composition Subduction Zones o Decompression Melting divergent, mid ocean ridge o Heat Melting Hot Spots What TYPE OF MAGMA IS FOUND WHERE Silica Content o The higher it is the lower the melting point Lava Dome (Rhyolite Dome) EruptionStyles Nonexplosive o Low silica, low gas, Basaltic Explosive o High Silica, high gas, pyroclastic, Andesitic Types of Eruptions Hawaiian o Low viscosity, large lava flows, non explosive, vent always open Ex: Shield Volcano, Big Island, Hawaii o Pahoehoe lava: low viscosity can walk on, creates lava ropes o Lava Fountain, forms Cinder Cone, skylight, tunnel o Aa Lava: Higher Viscosity (basaltic) Pelean o High Viscosity, occasional small flows, very explosive, pyroclastic Ex: Stratovolcano, Mt. Pelee, Mt. St. Helen
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