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HIST206 Midterm: History_ Exam 1 Study Guide

Course Code
Russ John
Study Guide

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History 206: 1865 to Present
Exam 1 Study Guide
Chapter 15: Reconstruction
Reconstruction Amendments: The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth
Thirteenth Amendment: (1865) abolishes slavery; declared that "Neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have
been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their
Fourteenth Amendment: (1866) most significant law to emerge from Reconstruction;
a Reconstruction amendment; amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal
protection of the laws; limits the actions of all state and local officials, including those
acting on behalf of such an official; in response to former slave related issues
following the Civil War
Fifteenth Amendment: (1870) granted African American men the right to vote by
declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous
condition of servitude."
Poll Taxes: enacted in Southern states between 1889 and 1910 had the effect
of disenfranchising many blacks as well as poor whites, because payment of
the tax was a prerequisite for voting
Literacy Tests: refers to state government practices of administering tests to
prospective voters purportedly to test their literacy in order to vote; intended
to disenfranchise African-Americans
Abraham Lincoln: 16th president of the United States; assassinated at the end of the
Civil War
Andrew Johnson: 17th president of the United States; became president after
Lincoln’s assassination; a Unionist Democrat, who was later impeached
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan: extended amnesty to all southerners who took a
loyalty oath, except for a few higher ranking Confederates; it allowed states to
reenter the Union as soon as they revoked succession, abolished slavery, and

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relieved their new state governments of financial burdens by repudiating
Confederate debts
Radical Reconstruction (Congressional Reconstruction): Republican gaining
majority control over policymaking in Congress marks the beginning of Radical
Reconstruction; enacted by congressional Republicans who were angered by
Johnson’s vetoes and violence in the South; key achievement- voting rights for black
Radical Republicans: gained almost complete control over policymaking in
Congress in 1866; gained control of the House of Representatives and the Senate
and thus gained sufficient power to override any potential vetoed by President
Andrew Johnson
Military Reconstruction Act (Reconstruction Act of 1867): the first Reconstruction
act; the bill reduced the secessionist states to little more than conquered territory,
dividing them into five military districts, each governed by a Union general. Congress
declared martial law in the territories, dispatching troops to keep the peace and
protect former slaves
Second Reconstruction Act: states that southern states needed to redraft their
constitutions, ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, and provide suffrage to blacks in
order to seek readmission into the Union; Also, passes a bill placing Union troops in
charge of voter registration; Congress overrode two presidential vetoes from
Johnson to pass the bills
Ten-Percent Plan: Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan; specified that a southern state
could be readmitted into the Union once 10% of its voters (from the voter rolls for the
election of 1860) swore an oath of allegiance to the Union; Voters could then elect
delegates to draft revised state constitutions and establish new state governments;
All southerners except for high-ranking Confederate army officers and government
officials would be granted a full pardon
Wade-Davis Act: Reconstruction plan proposed after Confederate states reject the
Ten Percent Plan; Stated that to rejoin the United States, 50% of a Confederate state
must vote in favor of reunion and sign a retraction apologizing for succession;
Lincoln pocket-vetoed this bill

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Pocket-Veto: an indirect veto of a legislative bill by the president or a
governor by retaining the bill unsigned until it is too late for it to be dealt with
during the legislative session
Freedmen’s Bureau: Federal agency to help the freedmen, to provide basic
education, health care, and to help reunite families separated by war and slavery;
worked as a transition from slavery to freedom; Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s
Bureau- claimed it was not constitutional (specifically, the Tenth Amendment);
however, his veto was overruled
Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the State respectively, or to the people
Carpetbaggers: northerners who moved South after the Civil War; some moved
from the North to promote education, others to modernize the South, and others to
seek fortune; know because of their tendency to carry their possessions in large
Scalawags: white Southern Unionist, attempted to achieve same aims as
Sharecropping: a system in which many former plantation owners divided their
lands and rented out each plot, or share, to a black family; with this land the family
farmed their own crops and rented their plot of land in exchange for a percentage of
their crop’s yield
Civil Rights Act of 1866: declared formerly enslaved people to be citizens and
granted them equal protection and rights of contract, with full access to the courts;
vetoed by Johnson but overruled by Congress
Black Codes: designed to force former slaves back into plantation labor; outlawed
everything from interracial marriage to loitering in public areas; one code outlawed
unemployment, which allowed white landowners to threaten their tenant farmers
with eviction if they decided to give up their land
Ku Klux Klan: a secret society of white supremacists formed in Tennessee in 1866 to
terrorize blacks; harassed and beat blacks, carpetbaggers, scalawags, and
sometimes even conducted lynchings (mob killings of blacks, usually by hanging)
Tenure of Office Act: required Senate consent for removal of any federal official
whose appointment had required Senate confirmation
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