HDFS202 Midterm: HDFS 202 Exam information and class notes

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Human Development and Family Studies
Bahira Sherif Trask

HDFS 202 Notes What does the family symbolize? • Unity, child friendly, appropriate, wholesome • Symbol for Decency- Disney, family movies, pro family candidates What is implied in the traditional concept of family? • Images of married couples • Love • Permanence • Children • Sexual Exclusivity • Homemakers • Intergenerational Continuity Census Definitions • Family: two or more persons who are related by blood marriage or adoption • Household:All persons who occupy dwelling such as house, Can be one or more people • Informal Definition: Group of people who love and care for each other- legal issues raise this What is a Family Today? • Pessimistic- Families are falling apart • Optimistic- Family is changing/stronger • View that perseveres in US- Traditional 2 parent family in which the husband is employed outside of the home and the wife takes care of the children -Evidence is legal cases against working moms Social Change Families Debate: • We need to return to “old” ways/ families used to be stronger, helped individuals more • Assumption that something of value is being lost Views of the Family in US • Another more positive view states that the family as we know it is dying BUT -Replaced by new family supportive of everyone -Egalitarian -Socializes the individuals to cope with a complex world -Individual self realization and autonomy -Allows for greater closeness of members Macro Influences • Economics • Technology • Popular Culture • Social Movements 2/12/16 2 Ways of Studying Research • Quantitative- looking at numbers • Qualitative- looking at non numerical data -Different Methods -Surveys -Clinical Research -Field Research -SecondaryAnalysis- looking at studies that have already been done, not looking at own data -Experiments -Evaluation Research- Which methods is better? Ex traditional vs. nontraditional families, collecting your own data, comparing either groups, looking at participants before and after experiments. Surveys • Course evaluations • Customers • Could be qualitative or quantitative Clinical Research • Face to face interviews • Often more qualitative, but could be both • Quantitative would be more “yes” or “no” answers 2/17/16 Family Myths • Self reliant traditional family • Natural Spheres: gender roles • Families are always happy and loving • Myths about the past: 1950s families were the ideal Myths about the Self Sufficient Family • Few families are entirely self-sufficient • Middle class isn't self-sufficient • Mortgage entitlement program • People who have reached retirement age are eligible for Medicare and Social Security The Myth of the Family as a Loving Refuge • Common belief- families provide love, nuturance, and emotional support Theoretical Foundations: Industrial Revolution • Began sometime in the late 1700s • According to economic historians, the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals, plants, and fire - Characterized by: ◦ An explosion in both the number and size of cities in the West ◦ Transformations in the average level of education of the population ◦ Aphysical separation of work from the family household ◦ Massive declines in both birth and death rates Industrial Revolution/ Urbanization/ Colonialism th • By mid- 19 Century, strong interest in social change and family issues • Individual obligations to family questioned- to what extent am I obligated to my family and myself? • Much of our thinking today still dominated by this time Darwin: Evolutionary Theory • Biological Evolution: series of stages/ simple to complex • Applied to study of cultures- the idea of “primitive” cultures and “civilized” cultures • Concept: Origin of families will tell us where families are going- all go through stages/ concept of unilinear development • Natural Selection led to best forms of families surviving over time- mechanism of social progress • Social Darwinism dominated study of family for almost 50 years from 1860 onwards • Primitive man vs. Civilized man ◦ Marriage: polygamy (more than one spouse because many men got killed in wars and had to take care of all of the women and children because there weren't that many men left) vs. monogamy (one spouse) ◦ “Evidence” from archaeology ◦ Indians, aborigines, blacks fromAfrica • Provided “scientific” legitimization for Western colonization and exploitation of “primitive” people. Affected treatment of poorer classes inAmerican and West European societies; • Matriarichal vs. Patriarichal 2/19/16 Development of Theories • Darwin introduced idea: struggle fro existence and survival of fittest- possibility that conflict and struggle are biological phenomena and central to human existence Marx and Engels Expanded: • Inherent quality of conflict within human relations • Contradictory nature of human existence- you need groups and you need to preserve yourself • Value of dialect- dynamism (stages of thesis, antithesis) • Class as Central- materialist view of people, owners, and workers • Technology produces 2 classes of people • Made gender central The Marxists: K. Marx and F. Engels • All history is outcome of conflicting economic interest of the various social classes (before focus was on religion or art or magic) • Originally no economic inequality (savagery)/ family was matriarchal and based on group marriage • Next stage (barbarism) men took economic control over means of production • With civilization, women became subjugated to male dominated economic system Marx and Engels: The Foundation of the Feminist Movement Main Contribution: family as an economic unit • Now work and family separated • Men worked in factories, earned $$/ Women stayed at home • As women lost their economic independence, an increased division of labor came about • Men's work became more valuable than women's work • Development of inequality in the family at time of industrialization • The shift from producing most of what family consumes to consumption/ buying what the family needs- one of most fundamental changes • Familial mode of production became labor market mode of production Marxism Problematic • Did not see women in the labor force • Role of other institutions in negotiating for individuals • Govt offers a certain number of protectiosn • Predicated revolutions- that is not what happened Social ConflictApproach • Marxist Roots ◦ Conflict is natural and inevitable among humans ◦ Humans are hierarchical and struggle with each other • Macro level: Example- conflict can occur among the sexes; social classes; age groups • Micro-level: in families • Conflict as positive- can strengthen ties • Conflict eventually leads to social change • Conflict Management Key Feminist Frame of Reference: • Foundational Belief: Gender always matters in social relations ◦ Women's experiences are different and unequal to those of men- including in the family • Women are actively oppressed by men • Feminists are wary of traditional family arrangements Core Issues • Gender inequality in the home and in the society • How gender inequality intersects with race, ethnicity, and social class • Have broadened view of family diversity • Initiated legislation to deal with family violence • Endorsed greater equality between husbands and wives Feminist Frame of Reference • Activism is critical aspect of approach • Critique: other forms of discrimination such as age, disability, and religion often ignored 2/22/16 Structural Functionalism -Fundamental ideas of good and evil **Conflict Theory- says that conflict is a basic interaction between people Institutions- government, health care, economics, marriage StructuralArgument • Anuclear family structure, with a focus upon marital bond rather than the larger kinship group, was particularly functional for industrial society because it was small and allowed for more movement • It allowed more geographic mobility, which was necessary for the new types of labor markets emerging with industrial capitalism Structural Functionalism • Family is a Social System: ◦ Has Several parts- husband/father; wife/mother, and children; all are interdependent • Family divided along gender roles because of necessity • Need to have “regular gender roles” in order to have stability and order are implied • Conflict and disorder are deviations **Today, the accepted wisdom is that family functions are primarily socialization of children and stabilization of adult personality **Feminists were very against structural functionalism The Social ExchangeApproach 4 BasicAssumptions: Feeling of fairness, idea of equal exchanges (box of chocolates example), feeling like you owe something to someone if they do something for you 1. All social behavior is a series of exchanges 2. In the course of these exchanges, individuals attempt to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs (social credit is better than social debt) 3. Under certain circumstances, a person will accept certain costs in exchange for other rewards 4. When we receive rewards from others, we are obliged to reciprocate and supply benefits to them in return Social Exchange • As long as costs seem lower or equal, exchange will be seen as fair and balanced Symbolic Interactionism • Addresses: Every day behavior of individuals • Examine our beliefs, ideas, and attitudes of daily life and our families; for example, a father playing sports with children is seen as good father involvement • Understanding the making of meaning through symbols and symbolic behavior Symbolic InteractionistApproach 4 BasicAssumptions: • Families and marriages must be studied in their own context (not study animals for example) • Family and marriage can only be understood in context of social setting (for example, language in which they exist) • Infant at birth is “asocial” and must be socialized • Humans communicate symbolically and share meanings- respond to symbolic stimuli 2/24/16 The Symbolic InteractionsApproach • Using this approach, the family is studied as a unit of interacting personalities • Everyone has different roles and they play out through interaction/relational • Brings people back in- people not as passive respondents to society's rules • People helping shape social world Ecological Perspective • View of the family as influencing and influenced by environment ◦ Interlocking systems- family and peer group all the way to technology and cultural norms ◦ Associated with Urie Bronfenbrenner- Macrosystem, Exosystem- workplace, mass media, neighbors, social services agencies, friends of family, school boards, legal services, Mesosystem- preschool, peers, extended family, healthcare providers, religious groups, and Microsystem-child and parent(s), and Chronosystem • Bronfenbrenner proposed “interlocking” systems that shape developmental growth of individuals • In order for interventions to work, they need to account for these various systems: for ex. Drug treatment program needs family and neighborhood context, Schools, etc Family Systems • Family as a functioning unit that ◦ Solves problems, ◦ Makes decisions ◦ Achieves collective goals- examples of family collective goals- getting the chidlren to got to college, nutrition, money, etc • Focus is not on individuals but how family members relate to one another ◦ How they communicate ◦ How patterns evolve History of the Family in the U.S Family and Kinship • Hunters-gatherers • Patrilineage- tracing descent through the father's line vs. matrilineage- A descent group traced through women on the maternal side of a family. • Conjugal family- the couple vs. Nuclear family- nucleus • Extended Family ◦ Stem Family ◦ Polygyny- multiple spouses; polyandry-when a woman has multiple husbands The First Families • Indigenous people- approximately 18 million and spoke 300 languages ◦ Tribal ◦ Most tribes were patrilineal (tracing descent through the father's line) while about 25% were matrilineal ◦ Little knowledge or interest in early people Colonial Families • Arrived in 1620 • Protestants with strict moral and religious values • Believed in right of community to intervene in family affairs: ◦ Marital relations should be harmonious ◦ Raising of children History of the Family in U.S. • Early colonists brought with them ◦ State Government ◦ Concept of Private Property ◦ Class System • Came as single men or small nuclear families Families in Early America • Earliest time characterized by economic, racial, ethnic, religious, familial diversity Early Settlers: ◦ England, Holland, Scotland, Ireland, Germany, and France ◦ African slaves forcibly brought at same time ◦ Knowledge based on: ▪ Surviving physical objects such as furniture, tools, and utensils ▪ Personal diaries, letters, sermons, literary works, wills 2/26/16 History of the Family in U.S. • Colonists lived in large households: ◦ Nuclear families ◦ Wealthier households contained servants as well; ◦ Poorer people sent their children to wealthier households to work as servants or to learn a trade ◦ Some people also came to New World as indentured servants FREE PASSAGE for WORK; • Many households had people who were not kin-servants, apprentices European Colonists: History of the Public Family: • Houses not designed for privacy- public • Households were closely linked to one another and very dependent on each other for cooperation and economic exchanges; European Colonists: The Primacy of Public Family • Family Diversity ◦ Not all families “ideal conjugal” family ▪ Stepfamilies due to death of parents ◦ Bundling • Marriage not always official ◦ More common in Middle Colonies ◦ Bigamy ▪ Men migrated West and began a new family Colonial Families: Social Class and Regional Differences • In New England, there were three social classes ◦ Merchant class, or upper class ◦ Artisan class, or middle class ◦ Laboring class, or working class • In the South, people settled in isolated plantations and on farms • In the North, people settled in villages Colonial Family in U.S. • Unequal relationships throughout society • Every household under authority of male property owner ◦ Wives ◦ Children ◦ Servants ◦ Apprentices • Hierarchical society with poorer having to obey richer ◦ Women- subordinate but not because of biology- viewed as a social necessity- one of many unequal relations in the society Families in Early America • Childrearing- Father's job ◦ Responsible for transmitting religious values and disciplining kids 2/29/16 History of the U.S Family • Patriarchal colonial family faded with new migrations and population expansion EarlyAfrican American Families • 1619-Jamestown- came as indentured servants • By mi-1660s were losing their rights • Had difficulties finding spouses due to plantation system Influence of Slavery on Family • Family life difficult to maintain EarlyAfrican American Families • Unified heritage through lack of freedom • Family unity at mercy of owner ◦ At times, strong residential and kinship ties between slaves and slaveholders • Family had little economic importance- profits went to masters ◦ Women had multiple roles After the Civil War • Essential to freedom ◦ Reuniting families separated under slavery MexicanAmericans • Early Presence • Historically ◦ Elite landholding families ◦ Laborers ◦ Lived in barrios whenAnglo immigrants arrived ◦ Familism • Today outnumbered by immigrants Mexican Families in America • Mexicans living in area that became part of U.S. ◦ Landowners and Farmer- Laborers • Farmer- Laborers: Mestizo- part Spanish and part NativeAmerican • Compadres: In Mexico, the godparent with wealthy or influential person Mexicans inAmerica • April 23, 1846, U.S. Congress declared war on Mexico • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ◦ Signed on Feb. 2, 1848 • Ended the U.S.- Mexican War Mexican-American Families • Five centuries of Spanish colonization • Family character combines • Feelings of indigenous people ◦ Traditional feminine subculture • And Spanish expectations and norms ◦ Masculine machista orientation Mexican-American Families • Extended families important • Families provide support ◦ Emotional ◦ Instrumental ◦ Guidance Asian Immigrant Families • Kinship- patrilineal extended families ◦ Fathers- authority of family Asian Immigrants • Chinese- 1850s Goldrush ◦ Laws prohibited marriage to whites ◦ 1882 Chines ExclusionAct until WW2 • Japanese- 1880s- Hawaii 3/2/16 The 20 Century is About to Begin Changes in the Mid 1800s • Mid 1800s • Acceleration with spread of industrial capitalism- created factory work for immigrants • Division of common household unit ◦ Physically separated ◦ Labor for wages vs. home and kids ◦ Domestic work of no intrinsic value • Sharp split- home life/work life led to conecpt of “separate spheres” • Men's sphere-- world of work ◦ Rough ethic of business world ◦ Not rewarding except for $$$$ • Women's sphere- world of home; morally ppure ◦ Place where wives could renew their husband's spirituality and character ◦ Center of affection; nurturing, emotions New Concepts About Women • Virtuous Womanhood • Right after the civil way, women considered innately purer, more virtuous than men; benefit to society and men • Women as frail True Womanhood • Women expected to exhibit ◦ Piety ◦ Purity ◦ Submissiveness ◦ Domesticity • Middle-class women only worked if they had to- shameful; Individualism • Personal relationships within families • Enhanced emotional rewards • Support Independence Emergence of Modern American Family • Attention and energy of husband and wife increasingly centered on each other and on children • Children seen as not just needing discipline and economic support, but also attention, affection, and loving care Families in Early Twentieth Century • Technological innovations led to mass production of goods and development of mass scale corporations ◦ Demand for child labor declined ◦ Schools assumed greater role of socialization ◦ Working class women- more opportunities in industry and emerging clerical fields ◦ Unrelated men and women working together led to new forms of social contacts ◦ Emergence of “amusement” culture Rise of Companionate Family 1900-1930 • Married couples start to emphasize companionship and sexuality • Affection becomes more open (with children too) 1900s- Educated Motherhood • Childrearing came to be seen as important • Women were trained for it ◦ Women's colleges- to enhance their capabilities as mothers The Early Decades • Increase in premarital sex • Decline in births • Rising divorce rate 3/7/16 Moving on to Immigration Racial and Ethnic Groups in the U.S. • Racial group- socially defined group distinguished by selected, inherited, physical characteristics (today- race not biologically possible) • Ethnic Group- sense of people hood based on a common national origin, religions, or language • Minority Group- subordinate to majority in terms of power and prestige (not numbers) Current Immigration • 40 million or 13% of population ◦ 17 Million children or 24% of all children have an immigrant parent • In contrast to Canada where 21% make up the population andAustralia which is at 27% Immigration and Families • Immigrants portrayed as monolithic (perceived as one) group • Intergenerational differences • When a group arrives matters Process of Immigration • Gaining immigrant status requires: ◦ Sponsor who must be a citizen or legal resident ◦ U.S. Employer ◦ U.S. Government (especially in case of refugee) • Principal process of family tie (75% in 2012 ◦ Marriage Early Immigration or “Old” Immigrants: • 1820-1880 • Northern Europe ◦ Germany/Scandinavia ◦ Nuclear Families • Farmers • Settled in Mid-West Pre- World War II • 1880-1924 ◦ Southern Europe ◦ Mostly single males to work in factories ◦ Immigrants concentrated in industrial cities of Northeast and Midwest • 1924 onwards ◦ 60% of cities of 100,000 and up with ethnic enclaves 1924 Immigration Act • Congress closed door to immigrants • Allowed only a few based on a country based quota system and forbade all immigration from Asia • Purpose:Accelerate Integration Immigration Concepts • Historical vs. Current: • Chain Migration • Assimilation vs. Cultural Ecological Niches 3/9/16 Post- World War II • Legal immigration determined by family preferences for immigrant visas • Kinship networks instead of economic cycles ◦ 1900- 1940: 67% of all immigrants men ◦ 1941- Present: 55% women • 1965 Hart- Celler Act:Abolished national origins quota • 1990 Immigration Act: no limitations on family members- new form of chain migration • 3 Types of modern immigration ◦ Political refugees ◦ Highly skilled professionals ◦ Undocumented laborers Acculturation and Assimilation • Acculturation theory dominated by idea of assimilation ◦ Immigrants suffer acculturative stress but gradually acquire values of the dominant culture and that stress diminishes • Assimilation- Concept of unidirectional linear progress (not true) ◦ Used to explain the incorporation of turn of the century European immigrants into the American “melting pot” Current Situation • Racial majorities are increasing faster then the majority population • Latinos outnumber AfricanAmericas • Immigration now accounts for large share of population growth Modern Immigration Patterns • Immigration Debate: • Myth of less- educated/ welfare- dependent population • Reality- mix of engineers, scientists, computer specialists from Demographic Shifts Parts of Globalization Process • Global Processes ◦ Migration ◦ Urbanization ◦ Increasingly transnational nature of families ◦ Remittances African American Families • Varying approaches to studyingAfricanAmerican families Studies onAfrican American Families • Historically portrayed as poor/ dysfunctional • Contemporary representations as positive ◦ Adaptable ◦ More egalitarian ◦ Broad middle class ◦ Emphasis on extended families ◦ Positive role of women in families ◦ Adaptable children ◦ Social class matters Hispanic Families • Changing definition of who is Hispanic EXAM 2** 3/14/16 Gender Changes in US Women's Lives • Able to vote now • Can run for political office • Many more are working and having careers • Sexual harassment is against the law (1976) • Marital rape against the law in most states • Abortion Terms • Sex refers to the biological/ physical attributes with which we are born: anatomical, hormonal, chromosomes • Gender refers to the learned roles, attitudes, and behaviors that characterize people of one sex or the other • Sex influences people's behavior, but it does not determine how they think, feel, and act. People learn to be feminine or masculine through their gender, a more complex concept than sex Gender Roles • Characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors associated OR expected of males and females • Change over time and place; Example: 40% of women are the primary breadwinners now, and a while back, that would have been unheard of • Gender Identity refers to one's perception of themselves as either masculine or feminine Gender Identity and Sex- Role Identification • Historically, universal division of labor by sex • Socialization to gender roles begins at birth • Learned behavior powerful determinant of gender roles- but not for everyone • People's gender identity becomes part of their self- concept, but people differ in the extent to which a gender identity is important to them 3/16/16 *The paper: -Should have our opinion. -It is a personal paper. -Has to be turned in through Sakai. -Not required that you use the textbook, you can use an article. -Can use APA or MLA -Needs a reference page Gender Stereotypes • For the most part, U.S. Society still has fairly rigid gender roles and widespread gender stereotypes, expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex • People tend to associate stereotypically female characteristics with weakness and stereotypically male characteristics with strength Can Sex BeAssigned? • Intersexuals (called hermaphrodites in the past), are people born with both male and female sex organs (internal and/or external) • One in about 2000 children born SoAre WeAll the Same? • Continuing debates around the issue of the relative importance of nature vs. nurture Nature Side: Biology and Gender are Linked • Most prominent argument for biology comes originally from Sigmund Freud- but it discounted today • Freud claimed that anatomy is destiny- today we know that this is not the case Nuture Side: Biology and Gender are Linked • Arguments favoring “Nature” or biological differences between men and women come from the following sources: ◦ Developmental and health differences ◦ Effects of sex hormones which are chemical substances secreted into the bloodstream (androgen) ◦ Sex differences in the brain ◦ Unsuccessful sex reassignment Nature Side: Biology and Gender are Linked • Biosocial influences • Variation between individuals explained through socialization ◦ Aggressiveness- can be controlled through external controls • Evolution as explanation? ◦ Women as nuturers ◦ Men as aggressive and territorial Nurture Side: Socialization and Gender are Linked • Arguments favoring the “Nurture” side of the debate suggesting that culture shapes human behavior come from • Symbolic interactionists: importance of roles is shaping behavior- look at colonialAmerica as example • Cross cultural variation in gender roles • Margaret Mead's study in New Guinea • Cross cultural variations in male violence 3/18/16 Nuture Side: Socialization and Gender are Linked • Way we behave is due more to social expectations than biology ◦ Concept of “greater” expressivity of women? ▪ Some evidence that baby boys are more emotional ◦ History of US gender roles • Most common now to believe that behavior has both a biological and social component The Issue of Gender • In U.S: ◦ Men are thought to have instrumental character- Men like to do things, they like activity, more task oriented ◦ Women are thought to have expressive character traits- more caring about others, more sensitive How Do We Learn Gender? • Socialization: the process of acquiring the physical and social skills to become a member of society ◦ We only talk about children/ wrong ◦ Life span concept ◦ Socialization is dynamic and goes both ways • Basic functions of the family in all societies is nurturant socialization • Language acquisition also teaches norms Parental Influences • Children learn through identification with parents • Modeling of behavior • Early dependency How Do We Learn Gender? • Parents ◦ Children rewarded for appropriate behaviors ◦ Parents respond differently to boys vs. girls? ◦ Children develop stereotypical responses 3/21/16 Where Do We Learn Gender? • Children learn gender in first year of life • Research indicates that children's preferences for toys develops separately from parental influence • Peer Groups ◦ 2-3-- children sort into same sex groups ▪ Boys- competitive dominance oriented interaction style? ▪ Girls- agreement and support, ask questions ▪ Is there an argument for same sex schools? • Later peer groups ◦ Sense of self developed through activities ◦ Play ▪ Boys until recently more involved in more organized and competitive teans ▪ Title 7 changed all that ▪ Co-ed teams new approach ◦ Research- boys have more innate predispositions Media Influences • Stereotypical representations • US average- TV is on for 7 hours per day ◦ More men on TV ◦ Women younger • Leading to new issues of body image/ attractiveness among both men and women (one-half of 9 year old girls have dieted) • Books- until 1960's more about boys • TV and software- more aggressive behaviors ◦ Girls- Portrayed more sexually ◦ Contemporary female pop stars? Benefits and Costs • Exchange theory • Benefits: ◦ Traditional gender roles promote stability, continuity, predicatbility • Costs: ◦ Mat not be able to live up to the ideal ◦ Loneliness • Gender roles persist ◦ Based often on religion ◦ Because they are profitable for business Problems with Gender Stereotypes • Gender stereotypes can distort individual personalities • Place limitations on relationships that people are capable of forming or on career or personal achievements • Traditionally- men as initiators, women as followers, women as givers, men as receivers • Advantages to mixing of roles Rising ConcernsAbout Boys' Development • 67% boys in special education classes • More likely than girls to suffer fromADD • Lag
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