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NSCI438 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Classical Conditioning, Allostatic Load

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Rosen Jeffrey
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Clinical Neuroscience Exam II Study Guide Stress and Coping
General Adaptation Response Theory: consistent response to all stressors
o 3 stages
Alarm reaction: body mobilizes defense forces
Resistance: full adaption to stressor
Exhaustion: severe and chronic stressor
o Not accurate: better reflects chronic, not acute stress
Acute stress response: shuts down processes that are not useful in the immediate future
o Some immune function remains white blood cells move to surface of skin to
protect from infection
o Consistency reduction in long-term processes; habituation
o Variation response pattern depends on context; responses depend on the
Chronic stress response: overall suppression of immune system
o Leaves organism vulnerable to illness
o Cardiovascular system: heightened response useful in the short term but may be
exhausting in the long term
Personality types
o Type A more likely to develop cardiovascular disease
o Hostility: better predictor of heart disease than personality
May lead to low-level stress response
The brain: adrenal gland enlarged
o HPA axis increased levels of cortisol and glucocorticoids
o Hippocampus: rich in glucocorticoid receptors
Stress associated with deficits in spatial and episodic memory
Mother-child interactions: deprivation can lead to behavioral changes
Sex differences: women more vulnerable
Coping strategies
o Perception control: to what extent do you feel like you can control your
Pros: can spur active coping, reduced physiological stress response,
potential for pride
Cons: potential for regret
o Cognitive reappraisal: changing view of response in order to change emotional
Useful when stressor cannot be changed
Harmful when it prevents proactive coping
o Situation selection: short term avoidance could lead to long term harm
Difficult to study
o Cognitive change: tends toward reactive
Most highly studied
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