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NTDT200 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Cardiovascular Disease, Liver, Fat


Department
Nutrition and Dietetics
Course Code
NTDT200
Professor
all
Study Guide
Final

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NTDT200

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Chapter 5
Diabetes Mellitus
patients waste away to nothing
Patients have a problem with regulating blood glucose
Normally blood glucose is tightly regulated
Can cause complications and damage to other body functions if not monitored and controlled
Blood glucose regulation
-pancreas secretes insulin in response to increased blood sugar
-stimulates cell to take up glucose from the blood
-promotes extra glucose to fat in liver and adipose
pancreas secretes glucagon in response to decreased blood sugar
Stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood
Breaks down glycogen into glucose
Synthesizes new glucose
Disrupted Blood Glucose regulation
Type 1 diabetes
Lack of insulin
Autoimmune disease
o Destroys insulin producing beta cells in pancreas
o Can’t e digestion because hormone would get destroyed
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Panreas an’t produe insulin
Muscle and adipose
Can’t take up gluose
Causes hyperglycemia
Glucose spills into urine
Fatty acids released from adipose tissue
o Used as energy source instead of muscle protein
o Can’t e e used y the rain
Converted to ketone bodies in the liver
o Ketoacidosis can result
o Diabetic ketoacidosis coma DKA
Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes
Disease treated with insulin injection
Injections discovered in 1921 by Dr. Banting who injected it into dogs
First human patient was 14 year old boy
Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Risk Factors
o Obesity
o Physical inactivity
o Lifestyle
Most common form of diabetes is type 2
Prediabetes
o Fasting glucose 100-125
o Oral glucose tolerance test 140-199mg/dl
o Increased risk of type two
o heart disease
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o stroke
o treatment through lifestyle strategies, weight control and physical activity
o dietary modifications
Type two diabetes
o Fasting bg >125mg/dl
o OGTT >200mg/dl
Gestational diabetes
o occurs because of high blood sugar during pregnancy
o pregnancy hormones cause insulin resistance
o glucose crosses placenta to infant
o infant produces excess insulin
o extra fuel and insulin causes larger than normal baby
Risk factors
obese prior to pregnancy
older than 25 years old
fam history and non-white race
Gestational diabetes consequences
for mother
o cesarean section
o high bp during pregnancy
o increased risk of developing diabetes in 10-20 years
for infant
o risk of shoulder injury during births
o higher risk of breathing problems
o increased risk of becoming an obese child
o increased risk of developing diabetes as an adult
Complications of diabetes include
Heart
Blood vessels
Kidneys
Eyes
Nerves
Diabetes on the rise due
Obesity
Overeating
Decreased physical activity
Increased sedentary behaviors
Effects of food on blood glucose
Carbohydrates
Glycemic index-ranking of foods by their ability to raise glucose levels
Glycemic load-(foods GI x foods grams of carbs)/100
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