[NTDT310] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (112 pages long!)

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NTDT310
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1
Genetics and lifestyle are the two main factors affecting health status
o Most chronic diseases have a genetic base/predisposition
o 7 of 10 leading causes of death contribute to 85% of all deaths
o The top cause of death is heart disease
o 4/6 top causes are preventable and diet related diabetes, strokes,
cancers, heart disease
o Lifestyle choices include diet and physical activity
Risk factor: a health behavior associated with a given disease
o Family history, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary
habits, physical inactivity
Nutrigenomics and exercisenomics: terms regarding effects of nutrition and
exercise on genetic expression and resultant metabolic adaptations
o Nutrigenomics: uses a persons’ unique genetic information to reveal
their risk of disease and can be used to develop individualized eating
plans to lower disease risk/improve health
Physical fitness: set of abilities individuals possess to perform specific types
of physical activity
o Health- Related Fitness Components
Body weight and body composition
Cardio-respiratory fitness
Muscular strength
Muscular endurance
Flexibility
Other: blood pressure, bone strength, postural control and
balance, markers of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
Physical activity: any movement caused by muscle contraction that results in
caloric expenditure
o Unstructured physical activity: normal, daily physical activities or
Activities of Daily Living (ADL) that are not planned as exercise
Leisurely walking, walking to work/class
Climbing stairs, gardening, dancing, games
o Structured physical activity: planned exercise programs designed to
enhance physical fitness (referred to as exercise)
Brisk, aerobic walking
Basic principles of exercise training
o Overload
Intensity of exercise
Duration of exercise
Frequency of exercise
Adaptation body makes based on specific exercise overload
o Progression
Extension of overload
Gradual increase in overload with training
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Faster speed, more weight
As body adapts to overload, overload must be increased
to achieve additional benefits
o Specificity
Specific adaptations/changes the body makes in response to
the type of exercise and overload
Running and weight lifting impose different demands, so the
body adapts accordingly
Both provide substantial yet different health benefits
SAID principle (Hans Selye)
Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands
o Endurance training running, cycling, swimming
o Strength training muscular strength, power,
and muscle mass, muscular endurance
o Recuperation
Recovery and rest
Within an exercise session and between exercise sessions
o Individuality
Individual responses to exercise training
Blood pressure: responders will decrease,
nonresponders will not change
o Reversibility
Use it or lose it health gains gradually disappear in detraining
Single exercise bouts may induce beneficial effects
Lowering blood pressure, decrease blood sugar
response
Chronic exercise training is needed to maximize health benefits
o Overuse
Excessive exercise may induce adverse health effects
Muscle injuries, stress fractures
Role of Exercise in Health Promotion
o SeDS Sedentary Death Syndrome: describes sedentary lifestyle and
related health problems with physical inactivity that predispose to
premature death
o Cost of physical inactivity
Short-term: metabolic deterioration and weight gain
Intermediate-term: increase in disease (like diabetes)
Long-term: increased rate of premature mortality
o Health benefits of exercise
Prevent predisease conditions
Increased body weight/abdominal fat, elevated blood
glucose, type 2 diabetes
Exercise is medicine but we’re not really sure how it enhances health
o Physical inactivity causes genes to misexpress proteins, leading to
disease
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