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NURS312 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Syndrome, Reverse Transcriptase, Inflammation


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS312
Professor
amy johnson
Study Guide
Final

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NURS312

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Online Lecture #1
Chapter 13 - Immune function and responses
Has two functions - defense and attack
Main function - to protect body against microorganisms and remove damaged cells and
destroying cancer cells
Immune mechanism
All those physiologic mechanisms which endow the animal with the capacity to recognize
materials as foreign to itself and to neutralize, eliminate, or metabolize them with or
without injury to its own tissue
Must recognize self in order to recognize foreign
Can defend; first line of defense - skin, epithelial layers in conjunction with the body’s
normal inflammatory process
Innate/natural protection
Works the same way every time regardless of agent; not specific
Always present, not acquired; natural; from birth
Skin - low skin temp inhibits growth of microbes, which prefer 37 degrees; sloughing of
dead skin also removes adherent bacteria
Sebaceous secretions; sweat
Ear wax
Saliva, mucus, tears (lysozymes)
Stomach acids; gut flora (present but cause no harm)
Reflexes (blink, cough, sneeze)
Cilia; nasal hairs
Acquired/adaptive immunity - not present since birth; can take up to 7-10 days to provide
protection; specific to the antigen (foreign agent); can be from previous exposure
Functions of immune system - decrease with age
Defense - protection against non-self antigens
Hypo- alteration - increased susceptibility to repeat infections
Hyper- alteration - allergy or autoimmune disease; overreacting
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Homeostasis - removal of worn out or damaged “self” components - moved out with
lymph fluid
Hyper- alteration - autoimmune disease
Surveillance - perception and destruction of cell mutants (like cancer cells)
Hypo- alteration - malignancy
Antigen
Anything viewed as foreign (different than HLA) - the more different/foreign, the greater
the response
Size is important - stronger antigens are larger
Complexity is important; the more complex the stronger it is (multiple antigenic markers)
The amount is important; the more antigen, the greater the immune response
This is why some of your vaccines you get multiple times
Stimulates immune cells
Virulence = degree of disease-producing potential
Sometimes the exposure isn’t enough to develop the disease, but you’re still going to
develop your antigens and markers
Antigenic markers
On membranes of cells
Markers look like antennas
What is a receptor
Markers find their receptors; receptors always look like Y’s
Antigens, markers, antibodies (antibodies are the receptors)
When the antigen markers and antibodies connect, that gives you the connection for your
immune response
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility
complex (MHC) proteins
The genetics passed from both parents
The short arm of chromosome 6
It’s the code for the genes that are possible for the baby to get between the two parents
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