Philosophy Test 3
You can believe something true and it may not be justified. Justification and truth
are necessary for knowledge.
(1)Descartes dream hypothesis- For all decarte knows he could be dreaming
even if he is awake. You never know if you are truly awake. Dream argument,
unless there is a sure fire way to separate dreaming from waking you cannot
rule out the dream hypothesis. There is no sure fire way to distinguish
dreaming from waking. You cannot be certain about the external world. The
demon hypothesis states that for all descatres he could have been created by
a demon who always leads him into wrong judgement even when he is sure
that he is right. If he cannot rule out this hypothesis, he can not be sure about
anything at all. There is no way to rule out the demon hypothesis. He cannot
be certain about anything at all. Cartesian uses this to call into question all of
our beliefs. Descartes-If all beliefs are called into question-the rules of logic-
are invalid in getting out of this global challenge, then you cannot be
optimistic about answering these questions.
(2)You can physically perceive things you see a table. They agree on the this. A
representative realist states that when you are seeing something directly you
are only indirectly aware of it. You have a picture of whatever it is in your
mind, you are not directly aware of the real item, just a mental image of that
item. A direct realist states that you are completely aware of what you are
perceiving, there is no mental representation you see what is. Direct realism
leaves no room for perceptual error, it should not be impossible according to
direct realism. A stick in water may appear to be bent as the light is refracted.
According to direct realism the stick is bent. When you feel the stick it is not
bent. So the stick is also straight. These directly contradict it cannot be both.
Representative realism attempts to avoid this by saying that when you have
conflicting representations to reality is not a real contradiction. Under
certain conditions two mental pictures can be the different with the reality of
the straight stick can be the same.
(3)The representative realist states that we are aware of things existing in the
physical world indirectly. We can only directly perceive mental images of
these physical objects. You are able to indirectly perceive the real chair
through directly perceiving a mental image of the chair. Under favorable
conditions our mental representations are accurate to the physical objects
that they represent. They also may not- pencil appears bent through water.
Skeptics: We cannot establish whether we are in a favorable environment to
collect accurate mental images. There is no real way to verify that
appearance conforms to reality. We cannot establish undoubtably that
appearance and reality match
(4)Hume’s two points preliminary- we can only make hypothesis based on what
we have seen and tested in the past you cannot be 100% sure, but you can be
confident. BOMBSHELL POINT You cannot rationally have any evidence that
anything will happen based on past experience. The uniformity principle-
The past will continue uniformly into the future- no change in tendecys. You can only support the uniformity principle by stating that in the past, the
future has continued in the same way. This is not a good enough argument.
That is humes main point. The feeling of confidence we have that the sun will
rise is there because we are susceptible to conditioning. We see things
happen over and over again the same way and we aare conditioned to expect
them to continue in the same way. A dog can be conditioned to expect food at
the sound of a bell, but it is not a rational inference, but rather a conditioned
response. We see the sun rise every morning so we are conditioned to expect
that the sun will rise, as it has before. Our ablilty to form ex