[PHIL202] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (66 pages long!)

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PHIL202
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Philosophy 202: Moral Problems
Lecture One: Introduction and Terminology
Ethics: the philosophical investigation of the nature of rightness and/or goodness [dependent on
consequences].
Applied Ethics: the philosophical investigation of the moral status of various kinds of actions.
- What actions of kinds of actions are right and wrong?
Meta-Ethics: the philosophical investigation of the meaning of ethical claims and the metaphysics of
moral value.
- Morality and engagement of God.
Part One: Foundations
Moral Theory
- What makes actions right or wrong
- Is morality relative or absolute
- Does moral status of an action depend upon is consequences?
Part Two: Killings
Suicide
- Is suicide morally wrong?
Euthanasia: For the good for the person whom is being killed
- Is death a bad thing for creatures and human beings?
- Is euthanasia morally wrong?
Abortion
Is abortion morally wrong
Killing Animals
- Is it wrong to kill or eat animals?
Capital Punishment
- Is the death penalty morally justifiable?
Part Three: Drugs and Sex
Paternalism: The restriction of freedom
- Is it morally permissible to prevent competent adults from doing what they want with
themselves and other consenting adults?
Legal and illegal drug use
- Is it morally wrong to use recreational drugs?
- Should recreational drugs be illegal?
Sexual Morality
- What sorts of sexual activities are morally acceptable?
Pornography
-Is pornography morally objectionable?
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Part Four: Global Issues
Affluence and Abuse Poverty
- Do we have moral obligation to those who are less fortunate?
Future Generations
- Do we have moral obligations with respect to future persons?
The Environment
-Do we have moral obligations to the treatment of the environment?
Arguments
What should we believe by asking if there are good arguments for a certain claim.
- An argument is made up of two parts:
o Premises: reasons for thinking the conclusion is true
o A conclusion: the claim which the premises are supposed to show must be or is
likely to be true.
- A set of claims that support a conclusion.
- Is the conclusion probable.
Evaluating Arguments
- Would the premises, IF they were true, provide good reason to believe that the
conclusion is likely to be true?
- Are the premises true?
How to read Philosophy
Read the text twice and then:
o Ask what conclusion the author is trying to make and what reasons he or she if offering
to support such conclusion.
o As IF the premises were true, then is the conclusion true?
o Are the premises true?
Terminology
An action is morally right if and only if it is morally permissible.
- Example: is it accepted from a moral point of view
An action is morally wrong if and only if it is not morally right.
- Example if is forbidden from a moral point of view
Moral rightness and moral wrongness are:
- Mutually exclusive: no action is both
- Jointly exhaustive: no action is neither
An action is morally obligatory if and only if one is not performing, thus it is morally wrong.
- Example: not performing it is nor morally right [meaning you MUST perform it, it would
be wrong NOT to].
Some actions are right and are not obligatory
-eaxample: brushing teeth and washing face
Some actions are right and also morally obligatory
- example: keeping a promosie when there are not interventions.
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