UAPP110 Midterm: UAPPExam2StudyGuide

19 Pages

Urban Affairs and Public Policy
Course Code
Nina David

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Quizlet with all the vocab: ​ Some stuff from Exam 1 Chapter 1: ● Policy types ○ Legislative- written statutes ○ Administrative- enforce traffic laws/building codes ○ Executive- exec order, vetoes, appointments ○ Judicial- decide to hear a case, interpret laws ○ Symbolic- resolutions ○ Nondecisions ● Harold Lasswell: Science of policy should be 3 things: ○ Multidisciplinary ○ Problem solving ■ Doesn’t only engage in academic debates ○ Normative- based on values of area ■ Should recognize impossibility of separating goals and means or values and techniques ● Public policy- what govt does or doesn’t do ○ To further common good, public interest or to address public problems ● Why does govt get involved ○ Monopolies ○ Positive externalities ○ Negative externalities ○ Market under suppliers or is not capable of supplying ● Types of goods ○ •​Rival Good​- the consumption/use of the good by one person reduces the availability of the good to another person ○ •​Non-rivalrous​ - the consumption/use of the good by one person does not reduce the availability or utility of the good to another person ○ •​Excludable Good​- A good that only the consumer who purchased it may enjoy. ○ •​Non-excludable​ - any good that someone cannot be prevented from accessing because of non-payment ● Home Rule vs Dillon’s Rule ○ Home rule​- do things that don’t conflict with rules ○ Dillon's rule​- local govt does explicitly what state tells them to do (wait for permission) Chapter 2: ● Bicameral-​ a two house congress (ex:house of reps and senate) ● Block​ ​grants-​ transfers of federal dollars to the states where states have substantial discretion in how to spend the money ● Categorical​ ​grants-​ transfers of federal dollars to the states where states have to use it for specific purposes ● Filibuster-​ senatorial procedure where a single senator or group of senators can talk for an extended period of time in hope of delaying, modifying or defeating a proposal ● Lobbying-​ activities through which interest groups attempt to persuade policy makers to agree with their point of view or support policy proposals they favor or keep certain issues or policy alternatives off the legislative agenda ● Policy capacity​- government's ability to assess, identify and respond to public problems ● Policy gridlock​- when political decision makers are unable/unwilling to compromise in a way that permits public policy action ● Precedent-​ legal doctrine in which judges rely on prior court decisions in the making of current decisions Chapter 3: ● Policy Cycle: Problem definition→ Agenda setting→ Policy Formulation→ Policy legitimization → policy implementation → Policy evaluation and change ○ Problem definition ■ Who helps define problems ● Interest groups ● Politicians ● How does each group frame the problem? ○ Agenda setting ■ Systemic agenda (public attention) ■ Institutional agenda (government debate) ■ Decision agenda: when it’s voted upon ■ How to decide what gets on the agenda ● Problem stream: same as problem definition ○ How well do we understand a problem ○ Zika- changing understanding ● Policy stream ○ Range of tools to address the problem ○ What are the range of policy options for gun control ■ Restricting who can purchase guns ● Make them less available ■ Background checks for people who want to purchase guns ■ Reducing the amount of bullets someone can carry ■ Restricting the types of guns people can purchase ■ Range: do nothing to banning guns ● Political stream ○ Changes in administration ○ Majority part ■ What if same party isn’t in control ○ Defeat of powerful legislatures ○ Election of new officials ○ Mood among electorate ● ** When 3 streams come together→ things on electorate ○ Policy formulation ■ What actions do we recommend ■ All the available policy instruments ● Regulation ● Direct govt management ○ Parks, roads, defense, education and fire ● Taxation and spending ● Market mechanisms ○ Cap and trade- industries that pollute more can buy from industries that pollute less ● Education, information and persuasion ■ Formal and informal actors ● Bureaucrats, staff experts, interest groups ○ Policy legitimization ■ Legal force to decisions ● Pass house ● Pass senate ● President signs/vetoes ● Override veto ● Legal challenges ● Supreme ct weigh in ■ Social acceptability ● Obamacare-young people signing up matters ○ Policy implementation ■ *** Where actual intervention is seen ■ Actual administration ■ 3 Parts ● Organization ● Interpretation ● Application ○ Policy evaluation and change ■ Formative ● Evaluation as it’s being implemented ■ Summative ● Lets program run and then evaluates ● Theories ○ Elite theory ○ Group Theory ○ Institutional theory ○ Rational choice theory ○ Political systems ● Local govt gets money from ○ Tickets ○ Property tax (highest owned source revenue) ○ Transfers from state and federal Chapter 4 Vocab​: ● Assessing alternatives​- determining merit of possible choices ● Democratic political processes​- creation of opportunity for citizen involvement in decision making and ensuring review of policy ideas ● Incremental decision making​- way of making decisions that emphasizes consideration of a limited number of policy alternatives and their effects ● Problem-​ existence of unsatisfactory conditions for which relief is sought either privately or through the government3 ● Proximate causes​- causes of public policy that are most direct or immediate and sometimes easier to handle. Often contrasted with root causes ● Rational comprehensive approach​- a way of making decisions that considers all significant policy alternatives and all their consequences. Often contrasted with incremental which is thought to be more rational and realistic. ● Rational decision making​- attempts to follow a series of rational steps: ○ Define problem ○ ID goals ○ Evaluate alternatives ○ Recommend one that achieves goals ● Root causes​- basic causes of public problems. Contrasted with proximate causes. Notes: ● Policy Analysis Process ○ Problem Definition ■ Identification ● Scope ● Scale ■ Definition ● Communities affected ○ What consequences will result without action ● Exceptions/constraints ○ Construction of alternatives ■ Policy Instruments ● Regulate ● Subsidize ● Ration ● Tax and spend ● Contract out ● Market incentives ● Privatizing ● Charge fees ● Educate/advocacy ● Public trusts- historic homes ● Conduct research ○ Evaluation of Criteria ■ Effectiveness ■ Efficiency ■ Political feasibility ■ Social acceptability ○ Assessment ■ Parallel situations- register to vote while getting license ● Like checking organ donor box ■ Precedent/comparison study ■ Sources ● Peer reviewed journals ● Think tanks- research institutions ■ Economic approaches ● Forecasting ● Impact assessment-id, estimate and evaluate predictable ■ Political/Institutional Approaches ■ Program Evaluation ● Implementation analysis- examining how a policy is carried out ■ Ethical Analysis: analyze how ethical a situation is ○ Draw Conclusions ● **Unsustainable Development ● Policy Analysis 3 broad categories ○ Scientific ○ Professional ○ Political Chapter 5 Vocab​: ● Brainstorming-​ used to foster creativity in consideration of policy alternatives. In a small group setting, individuals are encouraged to think of possible solutions without imposing constraints on the discussion or criticizing ideas they are offered ● Causes-​ refers to the factors that are thought to bring about a given situation or problem. How did a problem come to exist? ● Creative​ ​thinking-​ analyzing public problem in an unconventional way ● Ideal​ ​situation-​ ideal goal or solution to a problem might be set ● Issue​ ​framing-​ the practice which policymakers and interest groups do whatever they can to set the policy agenda in their favor by defining problems their way ● Literature​ ​review-​ review of writing to see what has already been tried ● No-action analysis​- policy alternative that considers taking no new action ● Operational​ ​measures​-​ specific ways to define and measure policy problems (ex: rate of poverty or unemployment). Useful when quantitative measures are needed ● Parallel​ ​situation-​ similar condition in a related policy area that might provide ideas for what actions might be taken to address a problem ● Passive​ ​collection-​ finding out what others have suggested in a given policy area by speaking with program’s clients, admins, of various advocates and positions the orgs have taken on certain issues ● Policy​ ​design-​ form of policy analysis that occurs during policy formulation, where an analyst considers how various components of a proposed policy fit together and how likely they are to solve a problem. Considers what actions the government will take and how this will affect “target populations” ● Problem​ ​analysis-​ a series of methods that can be used to analyze the causes of public problems, where they exist, what effects they have, and what might be done about them ● Public attitudes​ ​and​ ​habits-​ collective opinion which can become entrenched due to longstanding habits and can influence policy action ● Quick​ ​survey-​ talking with people in a particular policy network or searching through hearings transcripts, minutes of meetings, newspaper accounts, and the like for pertinent info about a problem and policy alternatives ● Supply​ ​and​ ​demand​ ​perspectives-​ two views of how to think about public problems. One focuses on the quantity of the good or service that is available (supply) and the other is its use by the public (demand)- which might increase or decrease. Ex: energy policy could try to increase supply or decrease demand through conservation Notes: ● Chapter 6 Vocab​: ● Contingent​ ​valuation​ ​methods-​ use of surveys to determine the economic value that people place on certain goods/services for which there is no market value. Used in cost-benefit analysis to consider intangible costs or benefit such as a safe community or clean water ● Cost​ ​benefit​ ​analysis-​ often measure costs and benefits quantitatively by their dollar value ● Cost-effectiveness​ ​analysis-​ comparison of relative value in terms of benefit delivered. A method that is used when dollar value cannot easily be assigned such as number of lives saved by requiring safer automobiles ● Discount​ ​rate-​ calculation made in conducting cost-benefit analysis that takes into account the changing value of a dollar over time. Future costs and benefits are “discounted” to present value using estimated inflation rates ● Ethical​ ​analysis-​ analysis based on ethical principles or norms ● Impact​ ​assessment-​ form of policy analysis that examines the likely effects or impacts of proposed or adopted policies. These may be environmental, social, economic, or other significant impacts ● Implementation​ ​analysis-​ examines the process and effects of implementing public policy. Can be used to anticipate likely problems prior to adoption or to document actual problems after a policy has been put into effect ● Opportunity​ ​costs-​ opportunities forgone when time or resources are spent on a given activity ● Political​ ​feasibility​-​ calculation of the likely acceptability to policymakers of proposed policy ideas or alternatives. Whether officials are likely to support, also reflects broader social acceptability of the idea. ● Risk​ ​assessment-​ calculation of the risks to society posed by a given situation. Can sometimes also determine severity ● Risk​ ​evaluation-​ use of various methods to determine the level of risk that is acceptable to the public. ● Risk​ ​management-​ describes the public policies that are adopted to manage or control various risks. Ex: antiterrorist policies are designed to lower the risk that terrorism presents for public safety, and pollution-control policies aim to reduce risk to public health of various chemicals ● Sensitivity​ ​analysis-​ a way to adjust analysis by making it sensitive or responsive to changes in any one variable so that the consequences can be better understood under varying assumptions. Ex: forecasting can be made sensitive to different assumptions about economic growth or inflation Notes: ● Chapter 11 Vocab​: ● Cap-and-trade policy​- relies on market based mechanisms in which overall cap or ceiling is set and trading of permits or allowances is allowed within that cap ● Carbon​ ​tax-​ tax on gasoline or all fossil fuels, often proposed as a revenue-neutral tax in which other taxes are lowered by the same amount as the new tax on carbon ● Climate​ ​change-​ caused by greenhouse gas emissions ● Collaborative decision making​- approach to environmental or resource decision making in which industry and other stakeholders work cooperatively with government officials. More effective than conventional regulation ● Command and control​- traditional approach to environmental regulation (aka direct regulation) where government sets and enforces standards for air, water quality, and other regulations ● Corporate​ ​Average​ ​Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards- ​ program that mandates achievement of an average level of fuel efficiency for a given automaker’s line of vehicles. Sets minimum fuel economy standards but only for the average of all vehicles produced. ● Direct​ ​regulation- ● Ecosystem-based​ ​management-​ a comprehensive approach to natural resource management that emphasizes the integrated treatment of entire ecosystems and their functions. Contrasted with efforts to deal with a specific species or body of land or water ● Environmental​ ​impacts​ ​statement​ (​EIS​)​- a form of impact assessment in which government agencies must provide details on the environmental consequences of major actions, such as highway construction, and make them public prior to a final decision on the projects ● Environmental​ ​Protection​ ​Agency​ (​EP​ - An independent federal regulatory agency charged with enforcement of most environmental protection (such as pollution control) laws ● Environmental stewardship-​ A philosophy of governance based on the belief that the natural environment should be protected for future generations- the government is the steward of such protection ● Hydraulic​ ​fracturing-​ rapidly expanding oil and gas drilling in shale rock formations in which water, sand, and chemicals are injected under pressure to release the oil and natural gas ● Intergenerational​ ​equity-​ ethical principle that emphasizes fairness or equity among generations. Important for environmental policies that have substantial effects far into the future ● Intergovernmental panel on climate change​- the UNs scientific body charged with periodic assessment of global climate change and its effects. Its reports are widely considered to reflect the scientific consensus on the subject ● Kyoto​ ​protocol-​ major international treaty that commits signatory nations to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by a specified amount as a way to reduce the risk of global climate change or global warming ● Multiple​ ​use-​ the principle that any natural resource, such as public forestland, can be used simultaneously for multiple purposes. Ex: timber harvesting, and recreation ● Organization​ ​of the Petroleum Exporting Countries​- an association of oil-producing and exporting nations that was established to help fuse their mutual interests, particularly the price of oil on the world market and the stability of oil production and consumption ● Resource​ ​subsidies-​ government policies that provide financial incentives to develop and use specific resources such as land, water, minerals, and forests ● Sustainable​ ​development-​ economic growth that is compatible with environmental systems and social goals ● Toxics​ ​release​ ​inventory​​ a report published each year that can be accessed on the EPA’s website. It describes the toxic chemicals that industrial facilities release into the air water and land in communities across the country ● User​ ​fees-​ specific fees that the users of natural resources pay. Ex: fees for entering a national park, harvesting timber from public lands or mining minerals on public land Notes: (Guest Lecture - Dr.Barnes) Guest Lecture: Philip Barnes ● Political Economy- politics and the economy are inseparable ● Step one: Where does it come from? ○ Rejected energy- released as heat not used to perform a service ■ There will always be rejected energy ● Energy consumption vs Human Development Index ○ HDI- how advanced country is ○ Better off using more energy but only up to a certain pt ● Conventional vs sustainable energy system ○ Conventional- fossil fuels ■ Military costs ■ Spills ■ Deepwater horizon ■ Supply chains can be interrupted
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