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Human Sexuality and Culture [NOTES]

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ANT 2301
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ANT 2301 #3 I. Principal Bacterial STIs a. Chlamydia i. Common name for bacterium chlamydia trachomatis ii. Most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in the developed world iii. Estimated 1.5 million new cases each year in US iv. Often asymptomatic 1. 50% of infected men 2. 75% of infected women v. If untreated 1. Urethral damage 2. Infection of epididymis 3. Reiter’s syndrome (reactive arthritis) 4. Proctitis in men who had anal intercourse 5. Pelvic inflammatory disease 6. Infertility due to damage of fallopian tubes 7. Ectopic pregnancy 8. Risks for newborn infants of infected mothers 9. Increased risk for HIV infection vi. Symptoms 1. Females a. discharge b. Gonorrhea i. “the clap” or “the drip” ii. Survives only in mucous membranes 1. Cervix 2. Mouth 3. Urethra 4. Rectum 5. Throat 6. Eyes iii. Transmitted when mucous membranes contact each other iv. Most women and few men are asymptomatic (about 25%), men may experience pus-like discharge, and painful, burning urination 1. Skin lesions 2. Eye infections c. Syphilis i. Caused by Treponema pallidum bacterium ii. Has a latent phase – not active iii. Health consequences 1. Damage to the nervous system 2. Ulcers of internal organs and eyes 3. Heart disease 4. Dementia 5. Increased vulnerability to HIV infection 6. Death iv. Stages 1. Primary a. Chancres appear 2-6 weeks after infection 2. Secondary a. Rash or hives and other symptoms develop b. Syphilis invades the central nervous system and affects organs including the heart and brain c. Reddish patches on the skin, possible wart-like growths in area of infection d. Lymph glands enlarge e. Headaches, fever, anorexia, flu-like symptoms, fatigue 3. Tertiary a. After latent period, severe symptoms can develop if left untreated b. Ulcerating gumma v. More common in men than in women, and is prevalent in more age increments vi. Tuskegee Experiment 1932-1972 in Alabama, Macon County 1. 399 African American men diagnosed with syphilis, 201 controls 2. Men were denied treatment to observe the natural course of syphilis d. Vaginal Infections II. Viral STIs a. HIV i. Human Immunodeficiency virus ii. Primarily transmitted through bodily fluids iii. During intercourse, it can enter body through rectum, vagina, penis, or mouth iv. Once in the body, it never goes away v. In less than 5 percent of infected people, HIV disease does not develop to AIDS vi. Transmission in the US 1. 47.3% by male-male sexual contact 2. 25.8% IV drug use 3. 18% by heterosexual contact vii. AIDS 1. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 2. Diagnosis a. Positive blood test indicating presence of HIV antibodies b. T-cell count below 200 viii. HAART: Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment 1. Does not cure HIV, but may extend life 2. Consists of multiple drugs which act to: a. Decrease HIV viral load b. Help maintain immune function c. Prevent opportunistic infection i. Most common Tuberculosis 3. Problems with HAART: a. Side effects and compliance b. Cost c. Drug resistance 4. Not just a medical problem, but there are social problems a. Structural violence i. Socio-economic structures constrain people from achieving their potential and leading healthy lives 1. Poverty 2. Income inequality 3. Racism and ethnic inequality 4. Sexism and gender inequality 5. Warfare and political violence b. Human papillomavirus (HPV) i. Causes genital warts and cervical cancer ii. Associated with cancer of penis and anus iii. Increases risk of mouth and throat cancer in people infected through oral sex iv. Most common STI v. More than 100 strains of HPV, more than 30 are sexually transmitted and 10 strains lead to cervical cancer vi. Most are asymptomatic and temporary vii. Most women diagnosed after abnormal Pap smears viii. The fact that most HPV infections are asymptomatic and temporary does not make them less of a health risk ix. HPV vaccine 1. 3 doses over 6 months 2. $120 per dose in the US 3. Advisory Committee on Immunization practices of CDC made vaccination recommendation for males 13 to 21 years who have not been vaccinated previously or who have not completed the three-dose series 4. Should we make it mandatory? a. 35.5 percent opposed a mandatory vaccine b. 24.8% favored a mandatory vaccine for girls and boys c. The rest were undecided. c. Genital Herpes (HSV) i. Herpes Simplex Virus 1. HSV-1 a. Fever blisters (orofacial) b. Blisters often appear on the lips or mouth 2. HSV-2 a. Genital herpes b. Blisters on the vulva, vagina, or any place the virus entered the body ii. Diagnosis and treatment 1. Diagnosis: presence of blisters, sometimes a scraping will be taken 2. Treatment: no cure; therapy with antiviral drugs d. Hepatitis B i. Liver infection caused by viruses ii. Symptoms include poor appetite, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, pain, fatigue, jaundice, and dark urine iii. A 1. Spread through contaminated food/water iv. B 1. Spread through sexual contact v. C 1. Spread through blood vi. Most common in African Americans, male homosexuals, and drug users who share needles vii. 2/3 of infected pregnant women pass it to their babies III. Sexual Orientation a. Multiple gender identities i. Many societies have more than two gender identities ii. A third or fourth gender of “man-woman” or “woman-man” or “not woman – not man” 1. Hijra – Neither male nor female iii. Arapesh 1. Both sexes displayed what we consider feminine traits iv. Mundugumar 1. Both sexes were violent and aggressive v. Tchambuli 1. Women were “masculine” and men were “feminine” vi. Native American “two spirit” 1. Masculine spirit and feminine spirit living in the same body 2. 4 ender model: a. Woman and man b. Woman who dresses and assumes male role c. Man who dresses and assumes female role b. Sexual scripts i. Acts, rules, expectations about sexual behavior associated with a particular gender role c. Se
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