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ANT 3520
Katie Rubin

REVIEW • Trauma o Blunt force  Fractures – Arm • Monteggia fracture o Fracture of ulna with radius displacement o Caused by fall on pronated outstretched hand with straight elbow • Galeazzi Fracture o Fracture of the radius o Caused by fall on pronated outstretched hand with bent elbow • GR-UM  Falls - Ankle • Weber fracture o Inversion or eversion of ankle o A,B,C fracture • Potts fracture o Bimalleolar fracture o Very unstable  A+B, A+C, B+C…  Falls from height • Ring fracture o Feet first o At base of cranium o Spinal column drives up into skull • Jefferson fracture o Fracture of C1 • Axial load fractures o Spine, femur, foot  Defensive wounds • Parry fracture o Ulna o Monteggia fracture by force to posterior ulna • Defensive wounds to the hands • Boxer fracture (5 metacarpal) • Athletic injury o Clavicle o Pars defect (lumbar vertebrae) o Associated with axial loads  MVA injuries • Dicing patterns from tempered glass • Tibia fracture from bumper strike • Pilon fracture o Impaction from bracing on floor board in car accident  Determining order of injuries • Connect terminating fractures • Path of least resistance  Plastic deformation • Gives us a imprint of our weapon • Due to slow forces of blunt force trauma  Pseudo trauma (naturally occurring variation in humans) • C1-fracture versus non union o It may look like they died from c1 fracture, but maybe it never fused in the first place • Metopic suture o Suture at front of forehead o Sometime suture doesn’t fuse • Fracture of hyoid and non-union of hyoid o Caused by strangulation  If body in ditch • Were they run over, fell off, etc • Look at tibia’s to see if they fell feet first, which could be suicide o Sharp force  Stab  Dismember • Diagnostic features o Kurf and striations  Saw • Squareish • Stria parallel to kerf floor  Axe • Triangular • Stria perpendicular  Knife • Triangular • Serrated versus non-serrated • To determine directionality, we look at break away spurs and exit chipping, and false starts o Pattern injuries  Blunt  Sharp/saw • Meat cleaver or butter knife?  Class versus individualizing • We are getting a class of weapon • Individualizing would be finding DNA on the weapon, individualizing it to the user o Gunshot wounds  Hertzian cone – which way the bullet went • Inner beveling on entrance • External on exit • Definition • Results in? • Keyhole defect – glance bone and doesn’t penetrate. Internal and external beveling  Caliber • Dia
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