APK 2105C Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Anterior Pituitary, Posterior Pituitary, Tropic Hormone

36 views9 pages
Exam 2 Study Guide
Chapter 6
1. Name the primary and secondary endocrine glands and the hormones associated with
each.
Primary Endocrine Glands = their primary function is secreting hormones
o Pineal
Melatonin
o Hypothalamus
Neurohormones
PRH
PIH
TRH
CRH
GHRH
o Pituitary
Anterior
Tropic hormones
o ACTH
Posterior
Oxytocin
ADH (vasopressin)
o Thyroid
T3
T4
o Parathyroid
PTH
o Thymus
Thymosin
o Adrenal
Adrenal cortex
Steroid hormones
o Mineral corticoids
Aldosterone
o Glucocorticoids
Cortisol
o Sex hormones
Androgens
Adrenal medulla
Catecholamines
o Epinephrine
o Norepinephrine
o Dopamine
o Pancreas
Insulin
Glucagon
Somatostatin
o Ovaries
Estradiol
Progesterone
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Testes
Testosterone
Androstenedione
o Placenta
Secondary Endocrine Glands = they secrete hormones, but their primary function
is something else
o Heart
o Stomach
o Liver
o Kidney
o Small intestine
o Skin
2. Describe the links between the hypothalamus with the anterior and posterior pituitary
lobes.
The hypothalamus secretes hormones that stimulate the pituitary lobes.
o ANTERIOR: The hypothalamus releases hormones into a capillary bed
that flow through a portal vein to another capillary bed and then stimulate
the glandular cell to release its hormone.
o POSTERIOR: The axons in the hypothalamus terminate on the capillary
bed within the lobe.
The pituitary lobes then release hormones that stimulate other organs.
3. Describe the role of tropic hormones in regulating the release of other hormones,
including the feedback loops involved in the process.
Tropic Hormones = stimulate an organ to
release another hormone that will affect a
different organ
Negative Feedback Loops
o HYPOTHALAMUS: tropic hormone 1 is
released ANTERIOR PITUITARY:
tropic hormone 2 is released
ADRENAL GLAND: hormone 3 is
secreted TARGET CELL
o LONG LOOP: Once enough of hormone
3 is released, it goes back to the
hypothalamus or the anterior pituitary
and stops the release of more of
hormone 1 and 2
o SHORT LOOP: When enough of
hormone 2 is released, it goes back to
the hypothalamus and stops the release
of more of hormone 1
4. Describe the types of interactions between hormones acting on the same target cell,
including additive, synergistic, and permissive.
Because target cells might have receptors for more than one hormone on them,
they can be acted on by different hormones at the same time.
Additive = net effect equals the sum of the individual effects
o 5 of A + 5 of B = 10 net effect
Synergistic = net effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o 5 of A + 5 of B = 15 net effect—they’re better when they work together
Permissive = presence of one hormone is necessary for another to exert its
effects
o B cannot act without A
5. Determine whether or not an endocrine disorder is primary or secondary, hyper- or
hyposecretory based on given levels of hormones and/or symptoms.
Hypersecretion = when there is too much secretion of a hormone
Hyposecretion = when there is too little secretion of a hormone
Primary Secretion Disorder = when there is something wrong with the last organ
secreting hormonethe one acting on the target cells
Secondary Secretion Disorder = when there is something wrong with the anterior
pituitary gland or the hypothalamus
Chapter 7
1. Describe the major components of the nervous system and the direction of information
flow within and among them.
Central Nervous System
o Brain
o Spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
o Afferent branch
Neural inputinformation going from the body to the brain
Sensory information
Somatic senses
o Body
o Temperature
o Pressure pain
Special senses
o Taste
o Smell
o Sight
o Sound
Visceral senses = from the internal organs
o Efferent branch
Neural outputinformation going from the brain to stimulate a
response in the body
Motor system
Somatic
o Skeletal muscle
Autonomic
o Sympathetic
Glands
Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle
o Parasympathetic
GI tract
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.