APK 2105C Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Adenosine Triphosphate, Skeletal Muscle, Protein

52 views193 pages
APK 2105C
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 193 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 193 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Chapter 1, Part 1
Introduction to Physiology
Anatomy = study/science of body structures
Physiology = study/science of body functions
o Utilizes principles from other sciences
Biochemistry
Engineering
Physics
o Various levels of hierarchical organization
Atoms molecules organelles cells tissues organs organ
systems organisms
Applied physiology = similar to functional anatomy; looks at how structure and function
are integrally related
Cells and tissues
o Cells = smallest living units of the body
> 200 types of cells
o Tissues = different types of cells functioning together
4 classes of tissue
Nervous
o 2 types of cells
Neurons = specialized cells that transmit
information via electrical signals
Branches of neurons send/receive signals
o Axons send information away from
the body of the neuron
o Dendrites bring information towards
the body of the neuron
Functions
o Communication
o Control
o Sensory, integration, motor
Sensory neurons bring
information to the brain
Integration neurons interpret
information from sensory
neurons and tell the motor
neurons what to do
Motor neurons carry out
action from integration
neurons
Neuroglia = support cells within the nervous tissue
Sometimes just called glial cells
Have different types to make good
environment for neuron functions
Muscle
o Overall function = movement
o Many secondary functions
Thermoregulation
o 4 characteristics of the different types of muscle
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 193 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Extensibility = stretch out without being damaged
Elasticity = stretch and recoil without being
damaged
Recoil (return to resting position) is very
important
Stretching generates potential energy for
movement (that movement is the recoil)
Contractility = generate force with tissue
Excitability = have to be electrically excited to do
the movement
o 3 types of muscle
Skeletal muscle = move the skeleton
Cylindricle, elongated shape
White and pink stripe (striation)
o Proteins that overlap and slide back
and forth to cause contraction
Smooth muscle = makes up the wall of hollow
organs
Not striated
Look smoother
Digestive system
Cardiac muscle = makes up the wall of the heart
Striated
Contract
Only in the heart wall (myocardium)
Epithelium = sheet-like (always) arrangement of cells with under-
lying basement membrane of CT
o Simple (one layer) or stratified (multiple layers2+)
Also pseudostratified = looks stratified but is still
one layer of cells
Simple epithelial
Secretes something
Absorbs something
Not much of a barrierthings can move into
or out of the body
Stratified epithelial
Protect things
o Different shapes of cells
Squamous = flat, squashed
Columnar = long, sort of skinny
Celia to help move things along the cell
always associated with epithelial tissue
Cuboidal
o Covers or lines
Cover and line organs
Think of a coat
Coats covers the outside of the body
There is a lining on the inside of the coat
that faces the inside
o Spaces within vessels = lumen
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 193 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.