Non-Western Art [NOTES]

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Art and Art History
ARH 2500
All Professors

I. Terms a. Northwest Coast i. Northwest area of the Americas, including Canada ii. Very forestry, fertile, a lot of natural resources b. Nuxalk or Bella Coola (misunderstanding of their name that led to a new name) i. Ethnic group ii. Status is important iii. Changes 1. Smallpox heavily reduced population from 2000 to about 400 2. Missionization/Christianization 3. Ban of Potlatch a. Westerners thought it was dangerous b. Things have a value, you don’t give it away c. Gift-giving festival and economic redistribution system. A means of gaining status and reinforcing social structures. Giving accumulated wealth away is key to a successful life c. Alk’unta’m i. Most powerful and important spirit ii. Mask depicting Alk’Unda’M, Bella Coola/Nuxalk, NW Coast, c. 1890s 1. Ceremonial 2. Part of a costume 3. Could not be looked at on its own 4. Represents creator Deity who supervised the creation of the world d. Chief Tom Henry (1880s) i. Chief of the tribe that missionary decided to convert. He burned all the “fetishes”, or negative connotation of objects important to the culture e. Franz Boas i. Explored non-western art and appreciated it ii. Hired by Field museum to collect objects and people from NW Coast. iii. Anthropologist at New York f. Salvage paradigm i. People go to different cultures to study them, with the idea that we have to study them before they disappear. Ironic because they usually disappeared because of those people g. Cultural evolutionism h. Eugenics i. Madison Grant 1. Wrote a book called The Passing of the Great Race 2. Lots of immigration, wanted to conserve the purity of their race ii. Franz Boas 1. Born in Germany 2. Believed immigration was good for the United States, believed it enriched us to have people of different cultures i. Art i. “Totem” or mortuary poles and clan houses, Haida, NW Coast, 1888 1. Markers of clan identity 2. Mortuary poles specifically marked a deceased person ii. Nakheen (blanket), Tlingit, Chilkat clan, NW Coast, Cedar fiber and wild goat hair 1. Made from tree fibers, and made through a loom 2. Adornment is like a flattened out animal iii. Group of Kwakwaka’wakw at World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 1. Meant to show off history 2. Exhibited actual people in a “human zoo” th th iv. Bent wood boxes, Northwest Coast, 19 , 20 c., cedar wood, pigment 1. Used to store, and cook v. Rain hat, Tlingit, NW Coast, 1982, bark and pigment II. South America, Meso America, North America a. Pre-Contact, Post-Contact i. Way of dividing chronology in the Americas; before contact with Europeans vs. after contact with Europeans. b. New World i. Broad way to refer to the Americas; undiscovered world apart from the “old world” of the Europeans c. Popul Vuh i. Mayan myth of this world and the other world, and travelers that travel between the two, known as Mayan twins (duality, mirror-imaging and symmetry) d. Shaman i. Medicine man; special knowledge of the spiritual world ii. Move between worlds iii. artistic e. “Staff God” i. God holding two staffs ii. Identifiable figure, recurring f. Necropolis i. Mass burial; “city of the dead” g. Camelid i. Embroidered mantle, Paracas, Peru, late period 200 BC-200 AD, camelid fiber 1. In a dry region of Peru, important because lack of moisture important for textile 2. Figures in organized pattern; same figures, but flipped in different ways (mirroring), but different (colors). Same with difference 3. Labor-intensive; showed status h. Textile aesthetic i. Art takes reference to aesthetics of textiles ii. Feather tunic, Peru, c. 300-600 AD 1. Square-off spiral motifs iii. Border with standing frontal figures holding double staffs, Peru, c. AD 750-1000, cotton and camelid fiber 1. Step form 2. Flattened out figures 3. symmetry i. Quipu i. Knot record system ii. A notepad iii. Symbolic of the empire itself (from the center, roads radiated out) j. Pachakuti (1438-73) k. Art i. Standing figure, c. 3000 BC, Validivia culture, Ecuador; Stone, Ceramic; H. 3 ½ in 1. Earliest figurative sculpture 2. Archaeological; purpose is unknown 3. Organic and abstract 4. Female figures 5. One is stone, one is ceramic; different efforts to produce these two figures 6. Spots of the body; speculation: wearing of animal skin ii. Chavin de Huatar (foundational culture) 1. Raimondi Stela, Chavin de Huatar, c. 460-300 BC, Peru a. Symmetry, mirroring aspect b. Forms that seems to resemble a human but has different aspects to non-human traits c. Artistic rendering of the front of the stela d. “staff god” e. 2/3 is headdress, or could be different perspectives of the head iii. Mosaic figure, 700-900, Huari culture, wood, shell, stone, bone, silver 1. Refers to textile, figure wears tunic l. Moche i. Moche culture, Llama Effigy Vessel, Peru, 150 BC -150 (earthenware) 1. Llama 2. Certain technology available that weren’t European; wheel never really invented, only on small figurines ii. Geoglyps, Nazca, Peru, 3 -5 c. AD 1. Drawings on the earth 2. Can only be seen from a great distance above 3. Linearity, some show symmetry iii. Gateway of the Sun, Tiahuanaco culture, c. 500 AD, Bolivia 1. Staff god like figure 2. Symmetry, mirroring 3. Snake-headdress, mask-like face 4. Step forms iv. Peru, south coast, Huari-derived style, four-cornered hat, c. AD 800-1000 1. Textile form v. Portrait Vessel, Moche culture, Peru, 400-500 AD, terra cotta 1. Focus in Moche artmaking is ceramics, the most famous are portrait vessels 2. Likely made using molds vi. Drawing from painted vessel, Moche culture, Peru, c. 300-600 AD 1. Rolled out drawing of a vessel 2. Shaft tomb, corpse wrapped in textiles; directly related to the study of Moche ceramics 3. Reference to how ceramics are used 4. Bird sacrifice and honor vii. Lord of Sipan, Moche culture, Peru, c. 300 AD 1. Like a necropolis 2. Lots of use of textiles 3. Reference to the other world 4. References status in the society, use of precious metals viii. Warrior ear ornament and Peanut necklace from Tomb 1, Sipan, c. 300 AD, gold, silver, turquoise 1. Variety of precious materials 2. Depicts a person of high status using a shield and sword, with two smaller people behind him. 3. Mosaic technique used 4. Duality and symmetry of gold and silver in the necklace. Gold associated with sun and male, silver associated with the moon and women m. Inca i. Portrait of Inca Pachakuti, Felipe Guaman Poma de Avala, from The First New Chronicle, 1600-1615 1. Created an encyclopedia of Inca history and culture 2. Commissioned by a Spanish person to create this manuscript, but he used this to record the abuses of the Spanish on the Incas. Wanted it to be sent to King Phillip of Spain, but never got there 3. Portrait of the Emperor who built Machu Picho and Cusco, he wears a tunic with tocapu (motifs) th ii. Inca stonework in Cuzco, Peru, 15 c. 1. Use of stone as a high art form 2. Very tight iii. Pachamama 1. Earth deity (Inca) 2. Stone is imbued with the spirit of the Earth iv. Machu Pichu seems to have been born as a resort for the Emperor 1. Hiram Bingham, 1911 a. Was sent to find the lost city of the Incas th v. Angel Carrying Arquebus, Cuzco Scool, Peru, 18 c. 1. Dressed statues, portrait of statues 2. Mixture of baroque and Inca n. Guest Lecture i. Wari (500-1100 CE) 1. Complex society, pre-cursor to the Incas, laid out on a grid 2. Managed water very well, made aqueducts 3. Tapestry a. Major source was the wool from camelids, and cotton b. Backstrap loom i. Woman has strap across the back; person’s body keeps the tension ii. Warp (strands that run vertically), weft (strands that run horizontally) c. Tapestry loom i. Usually cotton is used d. Stepped-diamond and animal head tunic, 500-800 CE i. Similar to architecture: geometric and orderly ii. Almost always male garments; high-status, could have been worn by administrators iii. Thin threads, but thickly packed on each other iv. Very abstract, few figural forms v. Stepped-diamond, and a figure that has been abstracted vi. Eyes are depicted as half black and half white, round nose opening, most likely camelid heads ii. Inca (c. 1300) 1. Capital was Cuzco 2. Tapestry a. Tunic (Unku) with Tocapu Motifs. Inka, 15 -early 16 centuries i. Meant to be only worn by the emperor ii. Colors: white, black, red, and yellow iii. Repeated motifs that probably had distinct meanings at the time iv. Checkerboard motif is associated to soldiers or the Inca military power b. Dress (anacu). Inka, late 15 - early 16 century i. Made on a backstrap loom, this type of weaving more associated with women c. Man’s Tunic (unku), Spanish colonial, 16 -17 century i. Tapestry continued to be made, but more influences of Europe ii. Curvilinear rather than geometric, figural patterns iii. Topaco (?), repeated motifs iv. Depictions of flowers, headdresses (Inca) v. Depictions of lions, which is a symbol of the Spanish state vi. Likely worn during religious festivals, shows status and Inca culture, but used in a Spanish culture d. Tapestry with Coat of Arms and Vair Pattern, Spanish colonial, th 16 century i. Not bright colors, nor as fine weaving ii. No red iii. Commissioned by a Spanish family iv. Decline in quality th e. Miracle of the Child of Eten, Spanish colonial, Cusco, early 18 century (oil painting) i. Made during the Cusco school of painting, influence of Christianity ii. Shows textile environment of Churches in Peru iii. Frontal (antependium) 1. Tapestry covers the front of the frontal iv. Frontalera 1. Tapestry frame for the frontal v. Palia 1. Cloth that hangs to show centrality, under the monstrance f. Tapestry Altar Cloth. Spanish colonial, 16 century i. Made to hang in front of the altar, 1 meter wide ii. Red background, pattern of roses (European; symbol of Christian church) on a grid, animals like birds and cats and other local animals iii. Lace border g. Tapestry Altar Frontal. Spanish colonial, 16 century. i. Very European, used for masses of the dead or funerals ii. Skulls and 5 groups of blood in each shield that refer to the five wounds of Christ iii. Black and somber, very sharp and distinct (Incan) iv. Use of Inca palette (red, black, yellow, and white) h. Dalmatic. Spanish colonial, Cathedral of Cusco, 17 century i. Tapestries started to decrease in number, maybe because of prohibition by the Europeans ii. Worn by a person at mass iii. European cloth; imported iv. Silver-wrapped thread in the strips of the dalmatic; stepped-diamond motifs incorporated i. Palia. Late Spanish colonial or post-independence, Cusco region, 19 century i. Made of 9 strips with a fringe on one side ii. Could have been made on a backstrap loom 3. Santo Domingo, built over Inka Qorikancha (The Golden Enclosure), Cusco, 16 -17 century a. Built over a ceremonial complex, a show of European power and Christianity o. Cochineal i. Ink made out of an insect ii. Important in the Inca world as well as the colonial world p. Nocheztli (Nahuatl) i. Language of the Aztecs (word for cochineal) q. Magno, Macnu (Quechua) i. Word for cochineal in Inca r. Mascayapacha i. Red ink fringe on the forehead of the emperor s. Cocccinante i. Italian term for high status person ii. Word to mean you have the right to wear red III. Mesoamerica (Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras) a
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