BSC 2010 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Rubisco, Gamete, Hydrophile

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BSC 2010
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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What is Organic evolution?
The descent of modern organisms with modification from preexisting
life-forms
Historical Context of the Theory of Evolution
• Aiet Geeks  eas p: ● Aistotle: speies ae fied
• Judeo-Chistiaeasp: ● species do not change
● eah speies diiel eated ● eath ~  eas old
Linnaeus even thought evolution was absurd!
Confounding evidence: biogeography
• “iila speies ofte i sae geogaphi egio
• Diffeet speies ith siila fos i different regions
• “peifi taits of ogaiss liig i etai eioets
e.g., thick, waxy leaves in desert plants
Example of ?
Analogous structures arise from convergent evolution
Confounding evidence: comparative morphology
• “tud of siilaities and differences in body plans of major groups
• Puzzlig pattes:
● Aials as diffeet as huas ad dogs hae
similar bones in forelimbs (see next slide)
● “oe stutues ae estigial
Homologous Structures Arise from Divergent Evolution
Developmental Homology
Snake
Human
backbone
pelvic girdle
coccyx (bones where many other mammals have a tail)
thighbone attached to pelvic girdle
small bone attached to pelvic girdle
Confounding Evidence: Geological Discoveries
Georges Cuvier:
Deeper layers contain simpler fossils than shallow layers
• “oe fossils see to e elated to ko speies
• Fo oe lae to the et, soe fossils appea, othes
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disappear
James Hutton and Charles Lyell:
• Geolog hages slol ad gaduall though time
...Then, two scientists began to put it all together
Charles Darwin
1831
Alfred R. Wallace
1854
Dai’s Voage ad the Galapagos Fihes
• Dai oseed a aiet of lifestles ad od fos
• He late leaed these ee  speies
• He attepted to oelate aiatios i thei taits ith eioetal halleges i.e.
adaptation)
Theory of Natural Selection
• Chales Dai -s: Ruiated o theo, ut did’t pulish
• Alfed Wallae s: Idepedetl deeloped a theo siila to Dai’s
• Dai ad Wallae o-pulished the theo i 
• Dai’s The Oigi of “peies  shook the Wold!
Dai’s fats:
1. Any species is capable of increasing its population size exponentially
2. BUT this increase is rarely observed populations tend to remain stable in size
3. Resources are limited
• Ifeee #: Fe offspig suie to epodue. Thee eists a stuggle fo eistee.
(differs some from book)
Dai’s fats
4. Individuals in any species vary
5. Some vary in ways that help them survive and reproduce
6. Variation is inherited (somehow)
Inference #2: Certain inherited traits increase probability of survival and reproduction
“ua of Dai’s theo of Natual “eletio
Fact #1: Overproduction and struggle for existence
Fact #2: Heritable individual variation
The inescapable conclusion: Differential reproductive success causes evolution. He called this
natural selection.
Othe poits o Dai’s Theo
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