[CLP 3144] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 26 pages long Study Guide!

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CLP 3144
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Assessing and Diagnosing Abnormality
Assessment: the process of gathering information about people’s symptoms and the possible
causes of these symptoms
Diagnosis: a label for a set of symptoms that often occur together
Assessment Tools
Validity
Validity: the accuracy of a test in assessing what it is supposed to measure
Best way to determine validity is to see if results yield the same information as an
objective and if it is an accurate indicator of what the test is supposed to measure
Five types of Validity:
Face validity: on face value, the items seem to measure what the test is intended to
measure
Content validity: extent to which a test assesses all the important aspects of a
phenomenon that it purports to measure
Concurrent (or convergent) validity: extent to which a test yields the same results as
other, established measures of the same behavior, thoughts, or feelings
Predictive validity: if it is good at predicting how a person will think, act, or feel in the
future
Construct validity: the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure
and not something else altogether
Reliability
Reliability: indicates its consistency in measuring what it is supposed to measure
Four types of reliability:
Test-retest reliability: describes how consistent the results of a test are over time; may
have difficulty differentiating between current and past symptoms
Alternate form reliability: when people’s answers to different forms of a test are similar
Internal reliability: when there is similarity in people’s answers among different parts of
the same test
Interrater, or interjudge, reliability: different raters or judges should come to similar
conclusions when they are evaluating the same person
Standardization
A way to improve reliability and validity; it prevents extraneous factors from affecting a person’s
response
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Standardization of both the administration and the interpretation of tests is important to both
validity and reliability
Ensures common meaning from results
Clinical Interview
Much of the assessment is gathered in the initial interview and may include a mental status
exam
Mental status exam probes for 5 types of information:
1. Clinician assesses the individual’s appearance or behavior; ability to care for one’s basic
grooming indicates how well one is functioning in general
2. Takes note of the individual’s thought processes, including how quickly or coherently he
or she speaks
3. Pays attention to individual’s mood or affect
4. Clinician will observe the individual’s intellectual functioning
5. Will note whether the individual seems appropriately oriented to place, time and person
Structured interview: becoming more popular; clinician asks the respondent a series of
prepared questions about symptoms he or she is experiencing or has experienced; format of the
entire interview is standardized; concrete criteria is used to score a person’s answers and has a
standardized format
Symptom Questionnaires
Symptom Questionnaires: a quick way to determine a person’s symptoms; can cover a wide
variety of symptoms representing several different disorders
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI): most common questionnaire used to assess symptoms of
depression
Has 21 items each of which describes 4 levels of a given symptom of depression
Critics of BDI argue that it does not clearly differentiate between the clinical syndrome of
depression and general distress that could be related to another disorder
Not good for diagnosis alone
Also used to monitor a depressed patient’s symptoms on a weekly basis
Personality Inventories
Personality Inventories: usually questionnaires meant to assess people’s typical ways of
thinking, feeling, and behaving
Used to obtain info on people’s well-being, self-concept, attitudes and beliefs, and ways of
coping
Most widely using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): developed in late 1930s
by Starke Hathaway and Charles McKinley;
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