COM 1000 Notes (everything you need to get a A)

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Center for Written and Oral Communication
COM 1000
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COM 1000 General Theory: The elements of the speech communication process and our views Elements of speech • Speaker o Origin or source • Encode o Putting thoughts into a code o Contextual cues • Channel • Message • Decode o Translating messages • Receiver • Feedback o Verbal or nonverbal responses • Noise o Physical o Psychological  Semantic • Effect • Context • Views o One way view o Interactional  Speak and then feedback o Transactional  What people think now Perception • Stereotyping • Schema/schemata – people put information into manageable chunks so that the  brain can process/store it for retrieval. Classifying people • Cognitive complexity – psychological availability. Availability to see the middle  ground. High cognitive complexity sees the shades of gray • Mindfulness • Stages of perception o Selection  Intense, frequent, repetitious  Perceptual sieve  Selective attention o Organization  Categorize and stereotype  Frame of reference  Clarify  Closure o Interpretation  Clear identification  Evaluate and apply judgment o Other considerations  Amount of information  Role  Timing  Psychological availability • Cognitive complexity  Norms • Roles • Rules • Ranks • Learned behavior Language/ Verbal Communication • Conventions o Rules we agree to follow • Symbols o Representative label • Referents o Pictures in mind • Concepts o Logically grouped labels • Meaning triangle o Symbol on bottom left, then referent on top, then meaning on bottom right o Sender­receiver confusion • Clichés o Short way of saying a longer, more complex idea o Surface level o Indicates distance • Relative words o Relative to what? o How long is “in a little bit” how short is “short” how tall is “tall” • Absolute words o Always and never • Equivocal o White lies o Sarcasm o PR language • Euphemism o Euphos – more pleasant sounding word o Passed away • Semantic o Concrete vs. Abstract  1 million dollars vs. successful o Denotative vs. Connotative  Dictionary definition vs. thoughts/feelings/emotions associated  with a word • Syntactic  o Grammar/sentence structure • Practical o Pragmatic­practical o Use language appropriately Nonverbal communication • Immediacy o Liking, dominance, and quantity and quality of response to partners shows  immediacy • Proxemics o Spatial communication  Zones • Intimate 0­18 inches • Personal 18 inches – 4 feet • Social 4­8 feet • Public 8 feet and beyond  The bubble • 3 feet American space • Positional cues • Clamshell effect o Romantic conversators adjust position to avoid  intruders  Violations • Suspect the violator • Adjust space or position  Cultural differences • Saudi vs. American • Older Japanese • Kinesics o Gross Motor movements  Expansive vs. restricted  Away or towards  Arm positions  Body flinches o Fine Motor gestures  Emblems • Gestures stand alone, peace  Illustrators • Emphasize language like “first thing” holding up finger  Regulators • In all cultures, shh symbol  Affect displays • Facial emotions  Adaptors • Releasing tension such as tugging at shirt • Self and object adaptors  Microexpressions  Sequences and clusters • Oculesics o Facial expressions of major, minor, or mixed emotions o Clusters of nonverbal activity o Eye contact  Avoidance or establishment of gaze  Type of gaze itself  Breaking off of contact  Eye shifts • Artifactual trypes o Clothing o Houses and neighborhoods o Jewelry and accessories o Hair styles, color, and adornments o Body piercing          bn • Gesture classifications o Emblems o Illustrators o Regulators • Chronemics o Amount of time talking o Silence o Timing of response • Haptics and contact orientations o Touching someone  Appropriateness  Allowance  Length  Place  Type • Congruency o Between story ad action • Status considerations • Differences between impersonal and interpersonal communication o Interpersonal – between you and one other person.   Interperson – unique, irreplaceable, stylized communication  (nicknames, greetings, inside relates, higher self­disclosure o Impersonal – ordinary, replaceable, standard communication (no  distinction, cliché level and distancing, no reference to prior history),  lower self­discloure • Dyadic communication – between two people with some type of relationship • Stages of self­concept formation o Self­awareness – inventory of strengths and weaknesses o Self­acceptance – satisfaction with that inventory, pass/fail o Self­esteem – the real vs. the ideal you, how you feel about your progress o Self­actualization – growth motivated from within, replace each hierarchy  from Maslow’s list  (influences: reflected appraisal, social comparison, sensitivity to  feedback, self­disclosure) • Norms, roles, rules, ranks, and control in relationships o Interaction theories focus on the stimulus, response, and reaction activities o Researchers rate the valence of the interaction o Autonomy vs. interdependence o Explicit and implicit rules o William Schutz Interpersonal Needs Theory – people want affection,  inclusion, and control • Three theories of interaction o Social exchange theory  Costs vs. rewards  Equity in a relationship (as dyad acquires equity, intimacy should  deepen, savings bank that you draw upon in times of crisis,  compound interest) • Social penetration theory o Self­disclosure (breadth, depth, the onion) o Relationship deepens as self disclosure deepens (pre 1986 “let it all hang  out,” post 1986 right info/person/time/place) • Social influence theory (Mormon Homefront PSAs) o Norms of coordinated activity (daily, global) o Compromises over autonomy and interdependence o Acceptance or rejections o Validate or invalidate the perceptions o Confirm or disconfirm the relationship • Stages of relationship development (one question related to bonding) o Engagement stages  Initiation (small talk, cliché level, symbolic value, 
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