Items to Review for Exam 2
1. Frank Conrad
a. 1 broadcaster, KDKA-Pittsburgh
b. Worked for Westinghouse Electric Corporation
2. Toll Broadcasting
a. Created by AT&T
b. A network sells airtime to advertisers
3. NBC Networks (Red and Blue)
a. 2 original radio networks
b. NBC Red – offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music.
c. NBC Blue – carried non sponsored broadcasts i.e. news and cultural
d. 1940’s NBC Blue is broken off and becomes ABC (American Broadcasting
4. Radio Act of 1912
a. Stations had to be licensed by federal government
b. Wavelengths & time limits enforced
c. Also include Wireless Ship Act of 1910 – Required passenger vessels to
carry wireless sets
5. Radio Act of 1927
a. Individuals couldn’t own frequency
b. Licenses work in the public interest
c. Government censorship was forbidden
d. Federal Radio Commission (FRC) created
6. Communications Act of 1934
a. Foundation for industry regulation
b. Charged companies with operating in public interest
c. Created Federal Communications Commission (FCC) which replaced FRC
7. Year that American radio penetration reached 90%
a. 1948 By the 1950’s 95% of Americans had radio
8. Edwin Armstrong
a. 1933, created Frequency modulation (FM)
b. RCA was having none of his shit.
a. See NBC above
1 10.How did radio influence our culture?
a. Created national identity
b. People grew to trust radio
c. Depended on radio for news
d. Took advertising revenue from newspapers
11.1938 War of the Worlds Broadcast
a. Orson Welles did the broadcast.
b. Caused widespread panic
c. War of the Worlds written by H. G. Wells
d. Started being read on October 30 , 1938
e. CBS – 6 million listeners
f. NBC – 30 million listeners
g. Warning was given at the beginning of the program once
h. 1/3 of the listeners thought the reading to be true.
a. Debuted @ Worlds Fair in 1939 by RCA - Radio Corporation of America
b. New York City
c. In development since the 1880’s
d. TV follows the network paved by radio
e. WW2 sped up technological developments
i. Equipment wise
ii. Trained technicians
f. 1954 – Colored television
13.FCC 1948 Freeze (television)
a. FCC froze licensing opportunities to allow for development amongst the
companies who already had licenses.
14.What happened to radio revenues between 1952-1955?
a. Radio revenues dropped by 58%
15. Color Television’s debut
a. See ‘12’ above.
16.In what year did 90% of American homes have television?
a. By the 1950’s TV sets were seen in 95% of American homes…?
a. Satellite launched by AT&T/Bell
b. July 10 , 1962
c. Made for 1 transatlantic live news feed
18.In 1974, what percentage of American homes had cable?
2 19.The Telecommunications Act of 1996
a. Amended Communications Act of 1934 to include the Internet, mergers
b. Telephone companies could now sell cable, phone, and internet
a. Dispersion of radio waves (like farming seeds) over an area
21.Tesla v. Marconi
a. Tesla and Marconi was said to have both invented radio
b. However Marconi was credited with the true invention because of his ties
to different companies.
22.How did radio threaten newspapers (Radio Wars)
a. Radio threatened newspapers in terms of they started to take the place of
how news was given. They took away advertising money.
a. Created Satellite Radio after a trip to Africa
b. First CEO of Sirius
24.Sirius Satellite (name, launch)... XM Satellite (name, launch)
a. Sirius – Satellite calls all their satellites “Radiosat” (Sirius-1, is the name
given to the very first satellite launched by Sirius) – Officially launch on
June 30 , 2000
b. XM – XM Satellites are denoted by really lame ideas… “XM-1 (Rock)”, “XM-2
(Roll)”, “XM-3 (Rhythm)”, and “XM-4 (Blues)” – Officially launched on
September 25, 2