MCB 2000 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Bacteria, Dna, Peptidoglycan

57 views40 pages
MCB 2000
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 40 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 40 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Lecture 1
Microbiology = study of microbes usually less than 1mm in diameter which cannot be
seen with the naked eye and require some magnification to be seen clearly
o Microbes
Viruses
Acellular = not truly a living thing
Bacteria
Fungi
Mycologists = people who study fungi
Protozoans
Prions
Acellular
o Possible focuses of microbiologists
Medicineimmunology
Food and dairy
Public healthepidemiology
Industrial
Agricultural
Biotechnology (antibiotics, hormones, growth factors, etc.)
Genetic engineering
GMOs
Recombinant DNA technology = transfer of genetic material from one
organism to another to deliberately alter the DNA and produce a specific
product
Bioremediation = use of microorganisms to restore stability/clean up toxic
pollutants
Evolution
o Microbes were the first living organisms on earth
o Origin of prokaryotes on earth was 3.5 BYA
o There was no oxygen on earth until 2 BYA so microbes introduced oxygen to the
earth
Made the environment suitable for everyone else
Microbes and humans
o Only a small fraction of microbes are disease causing
o Historical uses
Bread production
Microbes produce CO2 which is what makes bread rise
Alcohol production
Fermentation = sugar alcohol
o Ethyl alcohol
Cheese production
Milk = sugar + protein
Microbes ferment the sugar part of the milk to make cheese
Treatment of wounds/lesions
Antibiotics
Mining precious metals
Microbes use minerals for their energy production and we can
extract the minerals from the microbes
Bioremediation = use of biological means to remove pollution
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 40 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Cleaning up human-created contamination
Important scientists
o Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Disproved theory of spontaneous generation
Spontaneous generation = living can develop from non-living
things (not true)
Developed germ theory of disease = opposite of spontaneous generation
Only the living can give rise to more living things
Demonstrated that fermentation is the result of microbial activity
Developed pasteurization
Pasteurization = kill bacteria in liquids without killing texture/flavor
of the food
Originally developed in vineyard to be used on wines
Vaccine for rabies and anthrax
Considered to be the father of microbiology
o Robert Koch (1843-1910)
Established the relationship between bacillus athracis and anthrax
Essentially established etiologythat bacteria can cause diseases
Proposed Koch’s postulates
o Establish the link between a particular microorganism and
a particular disease
Work led to discover or development of
Agar
Petri dish
Nutrient broth and nutrient agar
Methods for isolating microorganisms
Other major milestones in microbiology
o 1676 = Anthony van Leeuwenhook observes bacteria and protozoa using
homemade microscope
o 1796 = Edward Jenner develops first vaccinefor smallpox
o 1847-1850= Ignaz Semmelweis demonstrates that women were dying of
childbirth because they were getting diseases transmitted by the physicians
o 1853-1854 = John Snow shows that cholera is spread by contaminated water
o 1867 = Joseph Lister is the first to work on antiseptic (sterile) surgery
o 1908 = Paul Ehrlich develops drug to treat syphilis (first time chemotherapy is
used to treat disease)
o 1929 = Alexander Fleming discovers antibiotics (penicillin)
Recent advances in microbiology
o Easier to isolate DNA now
PCR = amplifies DNA and can make a lot of it from a little so it’s easier to
examine
o Discovery of DNA as genetic material
o Isolation, sequencing, manipulation of DNA
Human genome project
o Genetic engineering
Cheaper to make drugs using microbes and DNA now
Microbes harming humans
o Pathogens = microbes that cause diseaseonly a small fraction of all microbes
WHO estimates that 10 billion new infections are caused every year by
microbes
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 40 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.