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All Terms and Names to know

2 Pages

Clinical and Health Psychology
Course Code
PSY 2012

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Terms and Names to Know 1 (Psych)
1. replication- a term referring to the repetition of a research study, generally with
different situations and different subjects, to determine if the basic findings of the
original study can be generalized to other participants and circumstances.
2. Rogers-humanistic perspective; emphasized that humans have a natural tendency
towards psychological growth and health- a process that is aided by the positive
regard of those who surround them; defined a perspective that strives to deal with
the whole person= holistic approach to human psych; true understanding requires
integrating knowledge of the individual’s mind, body, and behavior w/ an
awareness of social and cultural forces
3. Sample- subset of a population selected as participants in an experiment (I.e.
blonde girls who go to Carrollton participate in an experiment)
4. Scientific method/process- the set of orderly steps used to analyze/solve
problems; uses objective info to draw conclusions; minimizes error and yields
dependable generalizations (see steps for scientific method)
5. Self-report measures and limitations- self-behavior is identified through a
participant's own observation and report (survey, questionnaire, etc); may not be
reliable due to misunderstanding, social desirability
6. Skinner-extended the influence of the behaviorist perspective by expanding its
analysis to the consequences of behaviors; believed basic processes he and
Watson investigated w/ nonhuman animals represented general principles that
would hold true for humans; wrote Verbal Behavior= suggested that children
acquire language through ordinary processes of learning
7. Sociocultural perspective- the psychological perspective that focuses on cross-
cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior; (world/ppl):
things related to the community you grew up in; how you react to other ppl in
8. study strategies (encoding strategies) - Any technique or method that enhances
memory (mental picture, word association, etc); use these because:
Activate attention
Connect TBR information (to-be-remembered)
Use semantic meaning
Provide retrieval cues
Require effort
The more you work with it the more likely you are to remember it
Make TBR distinctive
9. study techniques- examples
a. make it meaningful= supports long term memory
b. rehearsal and review=
-Rote rehearsal: Exact copy of one at a time; Not highly effective
-Grouped rehearsal: Repeat items in ordered “sets”=results in primacy
effect (on long lists)=the items at the top of the list are remembered better
-Review TBR information= Distributed practice (many study sessions) or
Massed practice (one long session)

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TermsandNamestoKnow1Psych1replicationatermreferringtotherepetitionofaresearchstudygenerallywithdifferentsituationsanddifferentsubjectstodetermineifthebasicfindingsoftheoriginalstudycanbegeneralizedtootherparticipantsandcircumstances2Rogershumanisticperspectiveemphasizedthathumanshaveanaturaltendencytowardspsychologicalgrowthandhealthaprocessthatisaidedbythepositiveregardofthosewhosurroundthemdefinedaperspectivethatstrivestodealwiththewholepersonholisticapproachtohumanpsychtrueunderstandingrequiresintegratingknowledgeoftheindividualsmindbodyandbehaviorwanawarenessofsocialandculturalforces3Sample subsetofapopulationselectedasparticipantsinanexperimentIeblondegirlswhogotoCarrolltonparticipateinanexperiment4Scientificmethodprocessthesetoforderlystepsusedtoanalyzesolveproblemsusesobjectiveinfotodrawconclusionsminimizeserrorandyieldsdependablegeneralizationsseestepsforscientificmethod5Selfreportmeasuresandlimitations selfbehaviorisidentifiedthroughaparticipantsownobservationandreportsurveyquestionnaireetcmaynotbereliableduetomisunderstandingsocialdesirability6Skinnerextendedtheinfluenceofthebehavior
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