[COMPLETE] Principles of Sociology Notes Part 1 - got a 93% on the final exam

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University of Florida
Sociology, Criminology and Law - Sociology
SYG 2000

7/23/13 1. Social Stratification a. Hierarchical differences in societies; knowing that there are other people in other positions b. Three dimensions: i. Social Class: 1. Almost entirely the economic dimension of this; money along society—a lot of money, some, a little ii. Status: 1. Respect a person has based on position--Prestige iii. Power: 1. The power you have over others and society c. Status Consistency or Crystallization i. When someone has relatively the same position in each dimension ii. Ex: someone who is middle class, has some prestige based on their job, and has power over some, but there are others who have power over him/her—this person has a high level of status consistency d. Status Inconsistency i. When these three dimensions don’t level off ii. Ex: celebrities—they have a lot of money and prestige but no power over society; firefighters—have the most respect of any occupation but doesn’t make a lot of money or have any real power 2. Economic Inequality a. Income vs. Wealth b. Income: i. Paychecks, all the money that you bring in on a regular basis c. Wealth: i. Assets minus debts ii. Income, if saved away, is a part of the wealth 3. Income Inequality: a. As of 2009 the top 1% earned 23.5% of the country’s income b. The top 0.1% earned 6% of the total income of the country c. So the top 20% earned over 50% of the total d. Bottom 20% of the country earned 5% of the total income of the country e. Definitely income inequality due to 4 reasons: i. Deindustrialization 1. America produces almost nothing ii. TechnologicalAdvances 1. Alot of displacement from people who know industrial jobs but are now doing servicing jobs iii. Political 1. Alot of resistance for political things like minimum wage 4. Wealth Inequality: a. Inequality in material possessions b. From 1983 to 2009: i. Top 5% of the population had an 80% gain ii. Bottom 60% of the population had a 7.5% decline in wealth 5. Benefits of Wealth: a. Relieve stress, not as concerned with work, respect b. Investments c. Material comforts d. Financial Freedom and Security e. Wealth can bring all three dimensions whereas income brings social class if you are not drowning in debts i. Wealth can give high social class, status, and power f. Ex: Princeton 2009, of all legacies who applied 41.7% were accepted; for non-legacies it was 9.2%--meaning that being wealthy and coming from a family that went to the school meant that you can go to that school due to the prestige of the family 6. Poverty: a. Lowest end of stratification b. There are causes of poverty besides laziness i. Capitalism: poverty has to exist for this to work 1. Works around corporations and big business that must maximize profit a. In order to do that you want cheap labour and when you are not doing well you will have to cut and lay off some people 2. Class Competition—you need to have defined classes to 3. Lobbying—value people who already have the resources to influence c. Absolute poverty i. People who are under the “poverty line” and the way that this is calculated is: 1. Nutritionally adequate food plan times 3 (estimated you spend 1/3 of income on food) a. 1 person pretax is $10,830 b. 4 person pretax is $22,314 2. If you are not below this then you are not considered by the government to be in poverty d. Relative poverty i. You feel impoverished relative to the people that are directly around you 7/25/13 1. Race a. Asocial definition based on real or presumed physical and biological characteristics 2. Ethnicity a. Asocial definition based on real or presumed cultural characteristics 3. Any distinctions are man-made, we make them exist a. We can blur the lines ex: being Jewish 7/26/13 1. By being blurred it shows how race and ethnicity is super socially defined 2. History of Scientific Racism: a. Social Darwinism i. “Survival of the fittest” ii. Tried to take different races of people and made them almost different species b. Gregor Mendel—Genetics i. People started making the argument that genetics is the basis of racial superiority ii. Eugenics 1. The idea that you can improve a genepool in a particular culture by controlling who mates with who and so on 2. Ex. Nazis c. Phrenology i. Study of the skull structure to figure out what kind of people from ii. Ex. Django Unchained with Leonardo holding and explaining the skull 3. Cultural Explanation: a. “Culture of Poverty” i. They were saying that the conditions that poverty created was imposed on these people but then it got turned around by politicians said people are poor because that is their culture ii. Started out with good intention but was changed into something racist by politics 4. Fluidity Race a. Fluidity means that it is easy to change from race to race b. Hypodescent Rule i. One-Drop rule ii. Fits the same mentality of Eugenics iii. Making sure that whites are with whites and everyone else is with their own kind c. Not biological, man-made concept and imposed on ourselves 5. Weber—in terms of Authority and Stratification a. Looked at races in terms of the ranking in the stratification of society instead of numbers b. Minority i. Arace that is subordinate in regards to wealth, power, and prestige (status) c. Majority i. Arace that is dominant in regards to wealth, power, and prestige 6. US Census Bureau a. Said that in 2042 Non-Hispanic whites will be in the minority compared to all other races combined b. If this happens we will enter what Weber calls a majority-minority population, meaning that the majority (number-wise) will be the minority population (stratification wise) 7. Racism in Action: a. Stereotypes i. Generalizing behavior or characteristics to an entire group ii. Fuels prejudice b. Prejudice i. Is negative beliefs and/or attitudes about a group of people ii. Happens in the mind and when they turn into action they become discrimination c. Discrimination i. Prejudice taken into action 8. Intersectionality a. Academic view ignores the fact that everyone does not go through the same thing when they group people together in races b. All the characteristics matter; there are a bunch of differences between all the demographics of someone 7/29/13 1. Sex and Gender a. Sex i. Biological distinction between male and female b. Gender i. Social identity ii. Behaviors, appearance, role, etc… 2. Sex a. Male and female are the normal ones b. Intersexed i. People who are born somewhere in between with ambiguous genitalia c. Transsexual i. Born clearly one sex but they feel like they should be the other sex d. There is a continuum of sex i. Traditionally defined male and female are two ends of the spectrum ii. Social markers are the stereotypes iii. Where you fit on the spectrum is called sexuality 3. Sexuality a. The way people think about and behave toward themselves and others as sexual objects 4. Sexual orientation a. Who we desire/are attracted to etc… b. Types of sexual orientation i. Heterosexual 1. Attracted to opposite sex ii. Homosexual 1. Attracted to same sex iii. Bisexual 1. Attracted to both sexes iv. Asexual 1. Not attracted to anyone at all v. Pedophilia 1. Attraction to minors 5. Sexual Scripts a. The way we behave; how we approach sex b. Very dominant sexual scripts for men and women i. Men 1. Dominant, aggressive, detached, physical, selfish, etc… 2. Men see sex as tool oriented, social belief of men and sex is that these are the parts and that sex will happen ii. Women 1. Sensual, emotional, submissive, attached, etc… 2. Play is the general mainstream belief about women 6. Social Constraints on Sex a. Public, rape, number of partners/promiscuity, religious constraints (pre- marital sex), marriage/gamy, etc.. b. Men vs women i. Because of the way men are perceived there are laws about consensual sex, sexual assault, and rape 7. Rape a. Part of the sexual script is the idea that we live in what we called a rape culture b. Rape Culture i. We officially frown on rape but on some level our culture promotes it 8. Sex and Consumption a. Bodies andActs i. Prostitution ii. Strippers and escorts b. Porn and Erotica c. Sexualized Objects i. Vibrators, sex dolls,…etc… d. Sexualized Technology i. Viagra, pills, etc… e. Sexualized Relationships i. “Mall Girls,” hooking up, friends with benefits, online dating, etc… 7/30/13 1. WrittenAssignment 2 a. Annotated Bibliography i. Come up with a question such as is there a correlation between level of income and education ii. Look for 5 relevant scholarly articles iii. Write 4 page paper 1. 1-2 paragraphs that states the question, explain it, and address why you chose it 2. Entire rest of the paper is 5 times of this layout for each source a. Citation line for the article b. Each article has 1-2 paragraphs that address these things addressing what was studied, the methods, the results, and how it relates to your question iv. Find articles on uflib.ufl.edu 1. Search sociological abstracts 2. It has to be peer reviewed 2. Sexual Harassment a. Two main types i. Quid pro quo 1. The idea of I am doing something for you and you are doing something for me ii. Hostile Work Environment 1. The whole working environment is oppressive and if the entire department is making a lot of sexual jokes and there is a lot of sexual tension 3. Sexual Deviance a. Degree of Consent b. Nature of Person or Object i. Instances of this include having sex with a horse or a sex doll c. Nature ofAction or Body Part Being Used i. Oral sex or anal sex d. Place in which theAct Takes Place i. Public, religious buildings, etc… 4. Gender a. 2 concepts of mainstream gender i. Hegemonic Masculinity 1. The dominant idea of what being masculine is 2. Fits to a patriarchal family ii. Emphasized Femininity 1. Can’t be hegemonic because women are not dominant 2. Serves as the ideal woman type who is subservient in service to keeping the male in the dominant role b. Because we hold these values as the ideal we run in to people trying to fit the model although most families are Dual-Earner Families 5. Dual-Earner Families a. Supermom i. Woman who comes home after work and does the second shift 6. Education a. Hidden Curriculum i. Idea of skills and socialization that is taught that is not on the real curriculum ii. Such as bells teaching punctuality and respecting teachers is respecting bosses 7. Gender and Consumption a. Advertising 8. Transgender a. They feel comfortable in their sex but they feel like they are in the wrong gender role 9. Transsexual a. Feels like they are in the wrong body (born the wrong sex) 7/31/13 1. Family 2. Group 6 a. Definition of traditional family i. Someone thinks 2 parents, happy, 2 to 3 kids, man and woman, blood relation, a pet, one parent income, b. Traditional families started with baby boomers 3. Traditional Family a. Anuclear family i. 2 parents and their children b. Bread winner father c. 2 or greater kids d. Caretaker mother 4. Originated in 1950s a. Post WWII economic boom happened b. Bunch of GIs come back and romance ensues with people doing financially well c. This leads to the baby boom d. People could afford tvs after the boom, programming didn’t catch up and was just tailored to the very wealthy who could afford the one earner household and that is where this mass media message solidified the ideal family type 5. Family a. Group of people related by descent, marriage, or adoption 6. Marriage a. Legal union between 2 people b. Types of Marriage i. Monogamy (1 partner or spouse) ii. Polygamy (2 or more partners or spouses) 1. Polygyny (multiple wives) 2. Polyandry (multiple husbands) iii. Cenogamy (multiple men and women; group of people married to everyone else in the group) c. Steps 1 of getting married i. Meet the person and having intimate relationships 1. Intimate just means a personal relationship, can be sexual and physical but doesn’t have to ii. 3 levels of restrictions on relationships/on picking partners 1. Taste a. Personal preference (least constraining one but what people think about the most) 2. Logistical a. Includes language and distance 3. Historical-Legal a. Things like relationship status and sex, the things that you can not change, things you are not in control of (thought about the least but the most restricting/important) d. Endogamy and Exogamy i. Endogamy 1. Partnering inside your group ii. Exogamy 1. Partnering outside your group e. Step 2 is love i. Passionate Love 1. Sudden, intense, and based on sexual attraction with a low likelihood for sustainability ii. Companionate Love 1. Slower, based on knowing a person, support, with a high likelihood for sustainability f. 1950s is responsible for the idea of passionate love i. Got away from family controlled love lives ii. We tied passionate or romantic love to consumption iii. People marketed that you have to spend to show love 8/1/13 1. Changes that caused us to study family: a. 1960-2010 i. The amount of the population that was married went from 72% to 51% (Only married couples) b. 1950-2010 i. Number of nuclear families went from 43% to about 20% c. Clearly there have been changes and that is why it had to be studied 2. Andrew Cherlin a. His idea of the deinstitutionalization of marriage i. The idea of marriage as an institution and the support from the social structures has weakened b. 5 factors that led to this: i. Women’s labor ii. Children outside of marriage became more acceptable iii. High divorce rate between the 1960s and 1980s iv. Cohabitation became more acceptable v. Same-sex relationships became more acceptable c. He tracks the trends oftharriage in society by: i. In the early 20 century the norm was, what he calls, the institutional marriage 1. A marriage in which everyone behaved in a way to preserve the marriage ii. As we got in to the 1950s 1. Started to see people trending into companionate marriage, the idea where people got married for love and did things for the benefit of each other and keep the other person happy instead of making the marriage itself survive iii. 1960s and on 1. Ashift towards the individualized marriage 2. The marriage needs to be good for both of the individuals as well, it is not for the partnership but it mutually beneficial for both people 3. Models of families a. Non-Family households i. Living with people that you are not related to or in a relationship with (ex. Friends in an apartment) b. Family Households i. Traditional and Nuclear ii. Alternative 1. Cohabitation a. Only difference between this and non-family is that the people are in a relationship 2. Single-parent 3. Step/Blended a. Blended is when both of the individuals have children; both single-parents b. Step is a single-parent and another person 4. Lesbian/Gay families 5. LivingApart Together families a. Acommitted partnership/relationship but two different homes 6. Non-Residential Family a. One or both parents can’t be home for long periods of times so military families and parents with long business trips 4. Family Theory a. Structural-Functionalist i. The nuclear family is important for the smooth functioning of society ii. Benefits of the nuclear family: 1. Replace the population 2. Amarriage provides necessary child support 3. Socializes children into roles because will make boys become men who will work and girls will become women who take care of the home 4. Resources pooled for the good of the family 5. Intergenerational support 6. Controls sex 7. Helps children find their place in society (specifically in stratification of society) b. Conflict Theory i. The big advancement in family theory is feminist theory ii. The whole feminist perspective changes the family because it questions: 1. Gender roles 2. Patriarchal order 3. Single-earner household 8/2/13 1. Interactionists a. Exchange Theory b. Costs and rewards between family members, not necessarily a bigger picture 2. Family conflict Models a. Deficit i. Too early/lack of socialization b. Overload i. Public services shrinking/more responsibility ii. For example taking care of the elderly—responsibility is falling on family c. Cultural Tensions i. Conflict stems from the fact that a family is a group effort, but culturally, individualism is important ii. People within a family trying to fulfill individualism while trying to do things for the family leads to conflict d. Conflict of Interest i. Inside the home, people are more egalitarian—people on a personal level believe in equality of men/women/roles, but in the larger social structure, that isn’t the case e. Anomie i. Social scripts weakening—a sense of not belonging to a norm ii. New types of families—no model to look for 8/5/13 1. Politics a. Primitive Communism i. Early point of politics; worked when communities were really small b. Monarchy i. When communities got bigger politicians rose up and it became monarchies c. Democracy i. 2 types of Democracies 1. Direct Democracies a. Everyone directly votes and controls the government 2. Representative Democracies a. Everyone votes on a person to represent us that will go and vote on the governmental policies and such b. US Political System i. Although we have more than 2 political parties we have a two-party system because the national debate is between 2 main parties 3. OtherArrangements: a. Single Party i. You actually have only one party but it still is a real democracy b. Multi-party i. More than two parties are in the national debates 2. Sociological Perspectives: a. Structural Functionalism i. Group Pluralism 1. SFs believe that the US has group pluralism because they believe that there are multiple interest groups that are influencing the government but this is good because it gives us a sense of balance 2. These groups all fight with each other and team up against each other and blah blah blah b. Conflict Theorists i. Power-Elite Theory 1. Not that everyone is fighting for each other, but that there is an elite class of people who actually have the power and that they make sure that they can reinforce their values 2. They co-opt the class identity, to get to their class you go through such harsh socialization that your interests are their interests by the time that you get there 3. Economy a. Industrial Revolution i. Brought technological advances and moved us into mass production and to make mass production efficient came about scientific management 1. Scientific Management a. We should use science to organize worker behavior i. Brings about management styles and high rationalization ii. Ideas of different levels of management and supervisors ii. This all, together, is Fordism 1. Henry Ford set the standards of how labour is done with assembly lines inAmerica b. Recently: i. 1970s 1. Post-Fordism a. Smaller, more specialized production b. Shift away from manufacturing 4. Communism (Marx) a. The industrial revolution was capitalism where the tools or the means of production is owned by the rich and they rent out the machines to the laborers and pay them as little as possible b. Means of production are owned by the collective in Communism c. Get rid of the notion that the rich only owns all the factories and the machines and whatever; takes the tools out of the rich’s hands 5. Socialism a. Organizing all of the means of production for the good of society b. Taking the ideas of communism and organizing it to make a state in which the good of the society is the upmost priority 6. Welfare States a. Closest thing to pure socialism b. Capitalism has a free market completely but a welfare state has a few socialist ideas thrown in here and there c. The US does this via taxes which is a little bit of socialism because those taxes go back towards aid programs like medicare/medicade and social security 7. Marx a. When he was writing at the height of the industrial revolution there was a lot of competitive capitalism b. Then we moved to the Monopolistic Capitalism i. When big companies owned the market and paid everyone and there is little to none competition c. But this was not there when Marx was writing so his ideas fit only the beginning 8. Today we have Transnational Capitalism a. Where the industry crosses our national borders b. The process that brought us to Transnational Capitalism was Deindustrialization i. This is the systematic shift away from industry ii. And the shift into service iii. It became less and less about the tangible goods being made and more about the technological advances c. 3 factors that led to Deindustrialization i. Aging Technology 1. Changes faster and faster ii. Globalization 1. Makes labor in other places cheaper and easier iii. Consumerism 1. Economies became less defined by production and more by consumption because more varieties of things were getting consumed such as Youtube and Google 9. Unemployment a. Amount of people in the work force who do not have jobs 10. Discouraged Workers a. Looked for work in the past year or since they were fired and have stopped looking in the past 4 weeks 11. 3 kinds of Underemployment a. People are employed below their ability b. Involuntary Part time c. Not fully occupied (seasonal employee) 8/6/13 Religion: social phenomenon that consists of beliefs about the sacred, experiences, practices, and rituals that reinforce those beliefs; and communities that share similar beliefs and practices Could be a belief system, or the actual practices, or the communities that share the beliefs Sacred: antonym is profane Anything that is of the utmost concern of a religion, or anything that represents that Profane: anything that is ordinary or mundane Components of religion Belief Explain the world Identify the sacred Rituals Any repeated sacred events Rites of passage – specific rituals that are only completed once – life milestones Creates solidarity Liminal – special time apart from reality – pulled out of the profane mundane life into the liminal Experience Religious lens that they see the world through Civil Religion Beliefs, practices, and experiences organized around a civil identity E.g. being American – pledge of allegiance, national anthem, 4 of July, etc. Secularization – decreasing significance of religion (individual or societal) Practicing Religion Evangelical Spreading the belief system Fundamentalism Strict, unyielding interpretation of religious texts Theory Structural functionalism What functions does religion serve? Sacred canopy – religion provides a sense of security to those who follow the religion Explanations Theodicies – explanations about suffering and death Ethos – ethical guidelines Rule sets on what to do, what not to do Guidelines for a better lifestyle Hope Social change Martin Luther King Jr., Jesus, etc. Good social change comes in part from religion Collective effervescence – bubbling, good positive vibe feeling from all those people practicing religion Conflict Theory Marx: “religion is the opiate of the masses” False consciousness – not awakened to their exploited state Class consciousness – being awakened to the reality of your class position Viewed religion as legitimation Religion a tool of elite against the lower classes – rewards in heaven if you work hard and be moral Validates suffering 8/7/13 Education Theory Structural Functionalism Durkheim Trains people to be members of broader society Trains people to be part of their specific occupational arena Later Encourages independence Value achievement School teaches you that you need to achieve, not unconditional support and love that you get from family Members of a group Not treated like an individual in larger society Evaluates based on specificity Judging and evaluating based on specific things – e.g. math teacher judges you based on math only, etc. Conflict Theory Marx Social reproduction Reproducing capitalist order Schools Make you docile, submissive, obedient, etc. Hidden curriculum – what you’re learning OTHER than math, science, etc. Bells, schedules, raising hands, etc. Max Weber Credentialing Reducing education to the degrees received by students Even though number of jobs available to people with those degrees stayed the same – people get degrees, but not skill sent necessary to complete job Interactionist Class dynamics Don’t believe that students and teachers are cultural dopes – they don’t behave just based on socialization and culture that they are “drugged” with. This is why Interactionists look at actual class dynamics in a classroom. Labeling Theory Students are labeled as good, bad, smart, slow, etc. Interactions between students and teachers develop based on this Education as consumption For-profit universities Lure people in to try and make more and more money SAT Kaplan and Sylvan are money makers! Channel 1 news Schools that don’t have resources, channel 1 news donates for the ability to advertise and show their programming – feels more legitimate because the advertising is coming from the school Inequality in Education US is a meritocracy Family background Parents’educational attainment matters and lets the child have more resources The Bell Curve Inherent intelligence in populations – based on genetics Twins raised apart studies refute this claim – not used any more to justify Tracking Different tracks that put you out onto different occupational outcomes E.g. vocational, college-bound, honors, etc. Students in the upper track were given more resources  cumulative advantage Keeps the lower track students from getting better – get less resources 8/8/13 1. CollectiveAction a. Group behavior that defies socialization and provides the opportunity for change b. 2 types: i. Crowd CollectiveAction 1. Takes place in face-to-face interactions, everyone is in the same place (ex. march or protest) ii. Mass CollectiveAction 1. When the group is too large or too scattered (ex. writing letters for change, anything that can be done from a distance) c. Theories: i. Convergence Theory: 1. People with the same idea happen to gather in the same place 2. Main problem with this theory: doesn’t explain where collective action doesn’t occur ii. Contagion: 1. Collective action happens because people like to conform
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