Sociology imagination the ability to connect personal context to a historical context.
Allows one to shift perspective and realize how our minds can be shaped. *Perceptions of
ownership can change
**We need sociology imagination so we can see norms and how one's situation
may reflect their attitude
Behavior is socially defined
Classical Theory Began during the french revolution when positivism came about
positivism empirical (based on observations) science
Auguste Comte "We USE empirical science to study ppl"
*Three classical theorists (all agreed with Comte)
Karl Marx Wanted equality through communism & "capitalism will destroy"
Created the class warfare
1)Protetariat was the working class
2)Bourgoisie Owning class
These classes were based on means of production
Alienation occurred during work from
1)Product no tie to what they are making
2)Process Labor wasn't based on mastery
3)Others Didn't socialize
4)Self couldn't use their creative mind
Max Weber "Ideas do matter, ideas create economy"
Book" Capitalism U+& Protestant Ethic
Ideas on Bureaucracy (governed by a system)
Emile Durlieheim "FOUNDER of positivism sociology"
*When social ties are too strong
1)Altruistic Your life isn't as important as where you belong.
ex. Kamakazi Fighter Flights / Terrorism
2)Fatalistic Spot you fit in is intolerable
ex. US Slavery
*When social ties are too weak
3)Egoistic Few social connections, typical
4)Anomio Anomic sense of normalist ex.. Economic boom/depression, drastic change, when change
happens quickly, coming out of jail after years
1. Mechanical primitive communiteis, solidarity from doing the same job so you all have
the same struggle
2. Organic Modern and in larger societies, when you all work like 'Organs'
Based on consensus/agreement Something is dictated
No free will
small scale Larger scale
The use of Hegemony uses ideas to get ppl to do shit
Ex. Poor ppl still buy shit bc they think it'll give them a little more :)
1)Mass Society more people, less interaction, antisocial
2)Culture Industry Sell things you sell ideas
Post Modernism Theory , we are not modernized anymore
*Modernism, everything came with the industrial revolution, very SUBJECTIVE
Narratives were used to show progress and justify society's functionality but they
believe knowledge became larger and thus narratives diminished.
We question our knowledge and question all truth
3 Core Rules:
1) Symbols have meaning
2) Meanings can be interpreted
3) Meanings are not fixed & can be changed.
Charles Horton Codey – “Looking glass effect”
~Self image develops based on other person’s responses
George Mead – made split between the mind & self
Mind thinks about the social world, making observations Self – Develop an identity of what you are in the world, concept of
yourself as an object. Develops 2 things :
1) Play stage – you learn to play A role
2) Game stage – taking on multiple roles
Roles happen because Generalized – allows attitudes and expectations others expect us to
have be known.
~Mead split self into 2 parts:
1) “I” – source of creativity, acts instinctively
2) “Me” – reflecting appropriate behavior
Erving Goffman Dramaturgical Analysis – based on role,s scripts, sets and costumes
that we use appropriate behavior.
Front stage – people put on performance for social world
Back stage – Really like, how really feel, behind closed doors
1) uncover question
2) Review literature (make sure no one has done it, see where past research has
3) Develop a hypothesis
4) Generate method (Detailed plan w/possible obstacles)
5) Collect data
6) Analyze data and support/reject hypothesis
??? What are you looking for?
Correlation** change in one event doesn’t cause change to others.
- positive – both change in same direction
- Negative – the change in opposite directions
Causations – Try not to ever use because there are so many different variables
Reverse casuality A ▯B
Spurious Relationship – something else causes ▯C changes A&B
Population entire group, too large to study, large scale
Sample group of the population, generalizable if it’s representative
Data Collection instruments to collect data
Qualitative – observations, categorical, rich data w/detail
Quantitative – numbers
Observational Research –
1) Participant – resear