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Department
American Studies
Course
AMH 2020
Professor
Fritz
Semester
Summer

Description
Reconstruction  Readmit the South st  Francis Harper – 1 female Professor in Ohio, worked on railroad, widowed, traveled with daughter to abolish slavery - People did not know what to do  Formed organizations (KKK)  Competition for jobs Main Groups 1. Republicans 2. Former Slaves 3. White Southerners Military Reconstruction Districts Reconstruction Basis  Southern military leaders could not hold office  South resented North “carpetbaggers” who took advantage of S.  African Americans held public office  African Americans gained = rights as a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which authorized the use of Fed. Troops for its enforcement  North soldiers supervised the South  Jefferson Davis – in charge of the South  Subsistence farming Emancipation  Good intentions & the effects of paternalism  10% plan (Proclamation of Amnesty) – [1863] if 10% pledged allegiance to Union they can come back [Lincoln]  Wade Davis Bill – punish; 50% say sorry & let slaves go President vs. Radical Republicans th  13 Amendment – slavery is ended [1865]  Black Codes – laws and curfews for blacks; sharecropping  Civil Rights Act of 1866 – be fair; allowed to vote  Radical Reconstruction begins in 1867 th  14 Amendment – citizenships for ex slaves, born here naturalized citizen, = rights Freedman’s Bureau (1865)  Mobility  Edu.  Avery Normal Inst. And Paternalism  New visibility for the black community Election of 1868 and the 15 th Amendment  Allow American citizens to vote  Black political involvement Reconstruction II The limitation of Sharecropping & the Black Codes  Failure to gain economic traction  Unable to own land  Freedmen’s Bureau  Contract workers  Sharecropping Problems w/ the Election of 1868  Southern backlash at election time  Domestic terrorism and the KKK  Ulysses S. Grant performance in the South  The Force Acts passed to combat the KKK  Lost cause - transformed social order; convinced ppl it was an ideal world Corruption  Southern Republicans  Railroads –subsidies from Gov. Panic and Redemption  Build economic success  Railroads  Economic problems took priority over F.B.  Civil Rights Act of 1875 – require Gov. Compromise of 1877  Officially ended Reconstruction  Centered on the contested Election of 1876  Hayes vs Tilden  Deal: if troops were withdrawn from the filibuster for Tilden  Republican president, but the well being of A.A. abandoned Native American Ecological History of the Plains  The W. covers every major facet of history  Collision of visions of power  Horses vs. Gold  1820s-1860s, settler’s quest for gold  Trade brings guns and horses  Livestock and pop. are related  Indians fail to grasp Law of the Minimum – an organism’s limits are set by the mini. Availability of necessary resources Changes in Native Lifestyle  Trade marriages and social status dead end  Newspapers and thenduildings boom  Indians become 2 class citizens  Colorado Territory (1861)  Energy management Fed. Indian Policy  Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 Gold Rush st  Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 -1 law targeted at a particular group of people 2 Essay Questions 3-5 Identifications (Recall & Analyzation) Expansion  Exodusters –leaving slavery in the S.  Mormons  Major Legislation  Morril Land-Grant College Act 1862 –as Gov. sold land out west, they used the $ to fund agricultural  Homestead Act -5 yrs 160 acres without going bankrupt you could keep it  Pacific Railway Act Foundations of Myth  Railroads brought <2 million immigrants to the entrance to the W. between 1870- 1900  1865-1900 4 major industries: 1. Railroad 2. Farming 3. Ranching 4. Mining Farming Misconceptions  High levels of rain between 1878-1886 leading them to think that was the norm  Issues with new types of insects  Unpredictable market prices  Sudden drop in prices pushed many farmers into foreclosure because most carried high levels of debt to finance The Grange  Promoted fellowship, frat, and edu.  By the early 1870s the org. had several hundred thousand loyal members  Panic of 1873  Turned the Grange into a powerful political org.  Enacted Granger Laws- protected farmers 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philly Role of Government  Helped where it could and initially did not want to regulate industry  Eager to promote economic growth  Real Gross National Product increased 4% every year between 1865 and 1914, making it one of the longest periods sustained growth ever Railroad Expansion  Dramatically affected economic and social life  New type of business, differing from European lines  Made possible a national market and in doing so pointed tth way toward lass production and mass consumption, 2 of the hallmarks of 20 century society  By 1900 the US have more tracks in all of Europe combined  Competition- local interests rather than through traffic governed the routes of the tracks. Diff. railroads used diff. gauges, tracks, and Big Business Emerges  Rapidlythrowing workforce; opposed few restraints  Late 19 century industrial economy was the emergence of large corporations Modernization of Biz Practices  Railroads influenced “ “  Stock  Management  Standardization  Horizontal and Vertical Integration  Corporate Power  Monopoly  Captains of Industry/Social Darwinism [Carnegie & Rockefeller –Robber barons] Rise of Advertising  1867, businesses spent about $50 million on advertising; in 1900 they spent more than $500 mill. , and the figure was increasing rapidly  Department stores and catalogs From Salvation to Self-Realization  The creation of a consumer culture required a favorable moral climate  Therapeutic ethos  Advertising strategies  The use of half truth created conflict in whether ads were to be taken literally Hard Times 4 Workers  Workers often toiled 12 hrs each day, 6 days a week, for wages that barely covered a weekly basic living experiences  So many children in the labor force that when people spoke of child labor, they often meant boys and girls under the age of 14 Video- No compensation, Doctrow, locked doors, women no rights, Triangle Short waist Factory, people killed if they tried to form unions The Rise of Labor Unions  Record # of strikes  1881-1905 American workers staged 36,757 strikes that involved < 6 mill. Workers  Challenges of factory discipline from farm folk  Knights of Labor - 1886 founded for everyone  American Federation of Labor – skilled workers; had more power  Great Railroad Strike 1877 – Gov. sends national guard; Pittsburg/Philly Gov. Regulation  Injunction  Mediators Cities  Urban pop. Grew between 1860-1900  Ag. Became more mechanized, lowering demand for farm labor, increasing # of men migrating to urban areas Black Migration  300,000 migrated to northern cities between 1890-1910 [Chi]  Between 1910-1940, 1,750,000 AA left the S.  Black newspapers (Pitts. Courier& Chi Defender), encouraged blacks to move N *Bull weevil Migration of Women  Jobs  Marriage  Dance Halls & Hostesses  Professional Dating Immigrants  By far the greatest source of urban pop. Growth during this period was mass immigration from Europe with significant numbers also from Latin America, Caribbean and Asia  Ethnic Enclaves  Faced hostility and discrimination Conditions in the City  Tenements- multiple family dwellings of 4-6 stories housing dozens of families, became the most common form housing for poor dwellers by the 1860s  Settlement houses- institutions est. cities beginning in the 1880 dedicated to helping the poor by providing a wide range of social and edu. Services  Reformers New Thought on the City  City Beautiful Movement- the belief that held by certain architects, landscapers, and urban planters, that many of a city’s probs could be lessened by comprehensive planning and grand redesign of urban space  Fredrick Law Olmstead  New Urban landscape, central biz districts and suburbs Changes in Family Life  Varies by class  Victorian norms  Isolation of wife and kids  Bored upper class women and the temperance movement (Social Darwinism)  Immigration  Chinese Exclusion Act  America Protectove  Federal Involvement  1890- est. of immigrates  Ellis Island, most famous  Immigration Restriction Laws  Immigration Quotes Changes in Racial Identity  New Ideas on Whiteness  Protestant  Social Darwinism  Disease and Socialism  The Reorganization of KKK –hate everybody African Americans  1870s to protect the rights of African Americans, the feds did little more to ensure that states to adhering to the spirit of the law rather than just letter of the law  Late 1870s early 1880s, southern political leaders began to create a social and legal system of segregation (Jim Crow), named from derogatory black character and pop. Minstrel show. Early Civil Rights Case  Hall v. DeCuir – waterways; segregation is illegal on Gov. owned property  Plessy vs. Ferguson – 1 class train Turn of the Century Politics  Boss Tweed- 1870; largest steel owners in city; 2 mistresses; Apr. 12,1878 died in a jail he built  Thomas Nest posted cartoons got Tweed arrested in Spain Stalemate  6 presidential elections from 1876-1896, an average of almost 79% of the electorate voted, a higher % been noted before and after  Congress refused to pass a constitutional amendment for women’s suffrage, and between 1870 and 1910 nearly a dozen states defeated referenda to grant women the vote The Billion $ Congress  Sherman Antitrust Act – Congress ban on big biz (regulation; mergers)  “ Silver Purchase Act – quadrupled silver Populism  The National Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union, was one of the largest reform movements in American history  2 branches, the national farmer’s alliance, located on the plains west of the Mississippi and known as the NW Alliance the farmers alliance and Industrial union, based in S known as Sothern Alliance  Ocala Demands – don’t forget your drink  Party reflect Basis of Interpretation  Advances in comm. o Isolation to imperialism  Increased contact with foreigners and/immigrants  The end of the frontier and the search for a new American identity o Officially announced in 1890 census o Growth must take place abroad o 1898- U.S. exported more than imported until 1960 Teddy Roosevelt  Called for war w/ Spain for 3 reasons: 1. Free Cuba (Monroe Doctrine) 2. Benefit American by gaining something other than $ 3. Army and Navy needed practice  Intellectual Theories o Rough Rifer demo o Manly and adventures nations rise to the top  Savages since Catholic  Progress depended on regular racial mixing  Equal rights for Asians and A.A.  Est. bonds of war character The New Navy  Mobile aggressive Navy seen as the key to world power  Steel battleships  Alfred Thayer Mahan o T HE INFLUENCE OF SEA P OWER UPON H ISTORY , 1660-1783 o Distant markets and ports needed protection o Rush 4 power  Spanish American War made the U.S. a dominant force Yellow Journalism and the Spanish American War  William Randolph Hearest and Joseph Pulitzer  USS Maine  Teller Amendment – use of Army and Navy to expel Spain o Also promised not to annex Cuba  Treaty of Paris  Different ideas for different places  Annexing Mexico and Canada o Alaska and Sewards Plans o Pan-American Unity against the Old World o Hawaii for shipping to Asia, seen as large clients for agricultural goods o Tariff Reciprocity in the Caribbean o Hawaii  Duty Free Sugar  Exclusive use of Pearl Harbor Protestant Missions and Women  Western culture led to understanding Christianity  “White Man’s Burden” – moral crusade; duty to spread civilization like whites  Suffragist opportunities o The vocab of expansion o Women as a civilizing force Upper 2% had control Basics of Progressivism  An approach that a formal environment  Muller vs Oregon: max laws for workers  Influence of muckrakers and Teddy Roosevelt Progressive goals  True democracy and efficiency  Make the Gov., ththsteward and social affair fiat o Funded 16 amendment 1913, which authorized income taxes  Bring big biz in line o Clayton Anti-Thurs DEfs, It has many roots and def. depending on reference to people, political party, or movements Looking for reform It is sometimes seen a backward looking movement Reforms  Org, Revolution creating Gov. protection agencies for consumers o Meat Inspection Act 1906 o Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 o Federal trade Commission 1914 Morals and Science  Progressives were deeply moralistic, decided to remedying the its of society  Social Gospel: the belief that Christians had a responsibility to create an ethically sound and morally upright society  Scientific bases could also have an ugly side to reform o Eugenics o Teddy Roosevelt The Progressives Expand Problems with Reform  Transatlantic Influence o Muckrakers and Socialism  Don’t bite the hand that feeds you  Scientific Segregation  Holier than Thou Black Reforms  W.E.B. Dubois o Talented Tenth  NAACP as a Reform Movement Woodrow Wilson  Pres. Of Princeton  Moral Leadership  New Nationalism World Police  Americans turn inward following Spanish American Was  1898, the US left the peace table possessing the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam Becoming a Global Nation  Panama o Modernization of the army  Stretching his authority to the limits, Roosevelt took steps to consolidate the country’s new position in the Caribbean and Central America  Hay- Pauncefote Treaty of 1901 with Colombia Canal Construction  A French company tried and failed after losing 21,900 workers  U.S. had a 99 year lease, with options of renewal, on the canal zone 6 miles in width  Panamanian Revolt of 1903  Hay-Bunau-Varilla-Treaty with Panama granted U.S. control of a canal zone 10 miles wide across the isthmus of Panama Influence in Latin America  1903-1920 the U.S. intervened often in Latin America to protect canal, promote regional stability, and exclude foreign influence  Roosevelt Corollary (1904) – adds on to Monroe Doctrine Ventures in the Far East  Open Door Policy  Roosevelt wasted to balance Russian and Japanese power, and he was not unhappy at 1 war broke out in 1904  Taft-Satkura Agreement (1905) – letting Japan control Korea Dollar vs. Moral Diplomacy  Taft o Tried his best to continue Roosevelt’s policies o “$ Diplomacy” to promote American financial and business interests abroad  Wilson o Believed in ethics and moral purpose over material interests o Wilson and Bryan, promised a dramatic new approach in Latin America, concerned not only with the pursuit of material interest but with human rights and national integrity The War at Home Neutrality and the Progressives  Wilson proclaimed the U.S. neutral  Many thought war violated the very spirit of progressive reform because demanding safer factories was useless if the materials would be used to kill millions Women’s Progressive Activism  Jane Addams and Florence Kennedy* o Union Against o Militarism o League to Limit Armament o Women’s Peace Party Black Military Service in WWI  10,000 blacks regulars in Army, 5000 in Navy, but virtually all were cooks, waiters, and strokers for ship builders  13% of all draftees black The War  Flu Epideictic  Selective service War Powers  Committee on Public relations  Espionage Act of 1917* - Gov. looking for people who are disloyal  War Industries Board – ranked industries  Food Administr
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