Primarily based on perceived biological differences - characteristics, phenotypes (skin, hair, facial features) Morning"s conceptualization of race intentionally does not describe culture. A shared lifestyle informed by cultural, historical, religious, and/or national affiliations. Minority status has reference to unequal treatment and discrimination at the collective level,. Importantly, minority status does not refer to a numerical majority/minority dichotomy (ex: apartheid) 4 elements for the assertion of minority status: - fat acceptance. Collective identity - recognized in a wider society. Ex. native americans seek out recognized as nations not. Group: a set of two or more people who identify and interact together. Population: collection of people who share one or more characteristics and identify with each other. Subpopulation: the less dominant population / fraction of a population. Regular operations of the racial order works in their favor (majority) the group in which is in a higher social standing as a.