ECOL 1000 Study Guide - Final Guide: Hubbert Curve, Montreal Protocol, Richard Heinberg

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Lesson Five Cont
-Integrated Pest Management: Combing ecological, biological, and chemical methods
-The effective combination of three types of pest control to manage pest populations while
minimizing environmental damage
-The Ecology of Eating: Food accounts for ~25% of our ecological footprint (less in developed)
-Changing your environmental impact
-Consider where food is coming from (food transportation can increase footprint 10%)
-Consider purchasing locally grown foods in season
-Sustainable Agricultural Practices
-Use manure and legumes instead of chemical fertilizers
-Water Conservation
Lesson Six
-Want Ozone in the upper atmosphere
-Molecule consisting of 3 atoms (OZONE)
-Ozone in lower atmosphere is a pollutant
-Ozone in the upper atmosphere is beneficial
-Ozone Layer
1. Highest levels of ozone are in the stratosphere
2. Ozone filters out Sun’s UV light rays, which are harmful (but also used for production of
vitamin D)
3. Ozone is produced naturally from UV rays reacting with O2
-CFC Production
1. Invention of CFCS in 1920s
2. Safer alternative to the sulfur dioxide and ammonia refrigerants used at the time
3. CFCs were chosen for safety and for their advantageous chemical properties (low in
toxicity, non flammable, etc)
-CFC uses
32% for refrigerants
28% for blowing agents
20% for cleaning agents
18% for propellants
-Ozone absorbs UV light
-CFC’s destroy ozone, therefore CFc’s permit increased UV radiation
-Increased UV radiation is hazardous to your health
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-Through their influence on UV, CFC’s are secondarily hazardous
-The 1987 Montreal Protocol: International treaty created to reduce the damage being caused to
the stratospheric ozone layer by air pollutants such as refrigerant gases
-Under the protocol, production and use of substances that have been identified to
deplete the ozone layer were to be phased out by 2000
-Hydorcarbons + NOx ---------> 03
1. Ozone in the lower atmosphere is hazardous to your health
2. NOx is produced by automobile exhaust
3. Hydrocarbons are produced by:
a. Automobile exhaust
b. Trees (turpentine)
-Hydrocarbons and nitrous oxide are heavy, and sink to the ground level
-Increasing risk of
1. Asthma
2. Bronchitis
3. Heart Attack
4. Increased risk of dying from lung disease of over 30% in cities with high ozone levels
Brief History of Ozone
-CFCs detected in air
-Rowland warns of harmful effects
-US bans CFC production
-Dupont begins research on alternatives
-Reagan discredits facts
-DuPont stops research on alternatives
-DuPont states CFC production will not increase, but global production actually doubles
to 1.1 metric tons/year.
-DuPont discredits facts
-Rowland’s numbers verified
-Hole in the ozone proven
-DuPont seeks alternatives
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