Guest lecture elizabeth j. reitz, september 2, 2010. Paleo indian->archaic indian->woodland indian->mississippian indian->historic indian and european. Historic indians and europeans (early 1500s) - start of colonization. Not all indian civilizations developed at exactly the same time. Decline in population after mississippian era, spanish reported deserted civilizations. Traditional idea=everyone came from asia, only through the bering land bridge from russia through us and then to the rest of the americas. We don"t have any sites in north america from that era. Probably lived near water, where surveys have been collected. Holocene landscapes are the result of complex interaction between people and the non-anthropogenic (not created by humans) environment. Most if not all holocene landscapes have been modified by people. The environment prior to recent centuries was not pristine or unmodified by human behavior. All humans influence soil formation, landscape evolution and distribution of native plants and animals, including hunters and gatherers.