AFP- Midterm Study Giude.docx

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International Affairs
INTL 4250
Loch K Johnson

American Foreign Policy Dr. Loch Johnson Midterm Study Guide Terms Chapter 1: Objectives and Instruments of Foreign Policy • Globalization – growth of worldwide networks of interdependence • Foreign Policy – a nations pursuits of objectives in the world through relationships with other nations, international organizations and factions • Foreign Policy Objectives – the physical protection of the nation, its citizens and its allies; economic prosperity; improvements in the quality of life (like clean air and water); and the advancement of human rights for its own people and citizens around the world • Power – the ability to persuade other nations and factions to accept its policy objectives —or at least not oppose them • National Security Intelligence – the gathering and analysis of information about global events and conditions, as wells as the views and personalities of worldwide leaders and other individuals of interest to the US • Diplomacy – the art of adjusting disputes between nations and factions through informal and formal negotiations • War Power – the threatened or actual use of overt military force • Covert Action – the secret use of propaganda, economic, political, and paramilitary actions to intervene abroad • Economic Statecraft – trade and aid, forms of diplomatic activity that rely on the commercial and financial side of foreign policy • Moral Suasion – winning friends abroad by virtue of setting a good example as a vibrant democracy • Cultural Suasion – winning friends abroad by way of attractive social attributes • Liberalism (idealism) – advocates the resolution of international conflict by way of international law, negotiations through international organizations, and the promotion of collective security agreements • Neoliberalism – advocates the worldwide development of democracy, open markets, and free trade, but adds the idea that these objectives can be achieved through the adoption of international regimes • Regimes – written agreements entered into by states that seek mutual institutional cooperation for the benefit of all signatories • Social Constructivism – concentrates on the questions of how social norms, ideas, and images can influence international relations, and the importance of how nations think of themselves and their values in comparison with other nations • Realism – a states external relations should rest more prudently on a foundation of military and economic strength (hard power) • Neorealism – international affairs is viewed as a structured system (not community) of interacting nations, with regulations of behavior • Neoclassical Realism – a more complex view of the world that takes into account not only the international system of nations—the number and types of nations—but also the influence of domestic politics inside a nations and the perceptions of world affairs by its individual leaders • Security Dilemma – as one nation arms itself defensively, a rival nations grows fearful of this rising threat, and in turn, further arms itself • Neoconservatism (Neocons) – a blend of realism and liberalism; promotes the spread of democracy (liberalist) by means of military force for success (realist) • Soft Power – using moral and cultural suasion to encourage others to follow your leadership • Hard Power – military threats and economic incentives or punishment • Smart Power – the ability to combine hard power (military and economy) and soft power (diplomacy, moral and cultural suasion) into an effective strategy • Democratic Peace Theory – democracies will rarely use armed forces against each other Chapter 2: An Analytic Construct for the Study of American Foreign Policy • Nation – a gathering of individuals under a common leadership, or government, in control of a well-defined territorial space • Sovereignty – the legal capacity of an independent state to regulate its affairs, as it pleases, without permission from an outside source • Empire – a nation exercising control over another sovereign territory of territories • Hegemon – a nation that’s control is less sweeping, but still strongly influential • American Foreign Policy – those decisions and actions taken by the sovereign nation of the US with respect to other sovereign nations, as well as various international factions, groups and organizations, in the protection ofAmerica’s citizens and allies, along with the advancement of their goals and values • Balance of Power – if one nation becomes too strong militarily, it will attempt to manipulate—or conquer—other nations; therefore, vulnerable nations will form coalitions among themselves to prevent a threatening outsider from achieving military dominance • Geopolitics – foreign policy influenced by the number, size, strength, location, and topography of nations • Domino Theory – theory that communism, like a domino, would spread causing nations around it to fall until only the US remained • Complex Interdependence – the entire intricate range of interactions among modern nations • CNN Effect – the speed by which televised images of international events enter the White House Situation Room and other government offices, as well as living rooms across the US • Global Village – a strong sense of community in which the world is becomes a neighborhood • Isolationism – a detachment from the affairs of other nations • Interventionism – attempts to influence the actions of other nations, openly or secretly • Exceptionalism – a belief in a mission to disperse this nations’values across the world • Separation of Powers –America is an array of separate institutions required by the Constitution to share authority and powers • Power Sharing – government of the US distributes foreign (and domestic) policy powers, as well as the authority to use them, across 3 branches of government • Institutional Fragmentation – the dispersal of power too broadly acrossAmerica’s government • Pluralism – existence of multiple centers of power • Hyperpluralism – the number of power centers has become excessively large, leading to a policy gridlock in Washington, DC • Role-Playing – the particular type of office occupied by decision makers will cause him or her to hold and implement views traditional to that office • Prior-Experience – the training one has had for a foreign policy job • Professionals – long-term careerists • Amateurs – temporary “in-and-outers” (academicians, business people, military personnel) who serve only a few years before returning to their previous job • Iron Triangles – sub-governments; an unofficial permanent government composed of interest groups, bureaucrats, and lawmakers • Distorted Perceptions – a failure to accurately comprehend events and conditions in the world around them • Self-delusion – officials brush aside or bend facts that fail to conform to their preconceived worldview • Leadership Isolation – leaders are cut-off from reality because they are removed from vigorous debate and outside opinions because they surround themselves with what they want to hear • Groupthink – a tendency for individuals in some groups to cast aside a realistic appraisal of alternative course of action in favor of high cohesiveness among the groups members • Executive Fatigue – deadening effect on “freshness of thought, imagination, a sense of possibility and perspective…” stems from fatigue from too many responsibilities and not enough time to carry them out • Character – a policymakers basic personality traits • Lend-Lease – the US would give destroyers to Britain in exchange for rights to naval bases in Europe during WWI Chapter 3: A Constitutional Framework for American Foreign Policy • Defensive Warfare – use of armed forces to repel an attack on the nation (inherent presidential power) • Offensive Warfare – use of armed forces for any purpose not directly related to the defense of the US against sudden armed aggression • Inherent Constitutional Right – the president’s designation is Commander-in-Chief, and under Constitutional injunction that “he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed,” allowed him the implicit right to use US as troops as he alone wished • Congressional Resolutions – a majority vote in both legislative chambers in support of a policy initiative • Formosa Resolution – a resolution in response to possible Chinese communists shelling Pescadores Island or invading Formosa; it was not a declaration of war, but was treated as such because it allowed this use ofArmed forces to secure the security of Formosa before anything happened; it was passed by Congress even though it failed to order a specific action or even name an enemy • Eisenhower Doctrine (the Middle East Doctrine) – authority to useAmerican armed force, if necessary, to protect the national sovereignty of nations in the Middle East against Soviet encroachment • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – reaction to questionable intelligence report thatAmerican naval vessels had been attacked off the coast of Vietnam; it said, “the congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander-in-Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the US to prevent further aggression  this “declaration of war” led toAmerican troop deployment in Vietnam • StatutoryAgreements – loosely worded statutes that grant permission to the Executive Branch to move ahead on an agreement by both chambers • ExecutiveAgreements – transactions carried out by the Executive Branch without any meaningful consultation with either chamber of Congress and sometimes hidden altogether from all lawmakers • LegislativeAcquiescence – a willingness of lawmakers to cue presidential free reign • Bipartisanship – the “fall behind the president” by both parties for the sake of national unity  partisanship  opposition of parties • Impoundment – the freezing of funds in the federal treasury, despite the package for an appropriations law requiring expenditure of the funds; executive never spend the appropriated funds  ex: Kennedy, Nixon, and Reagan refusing to spend money appropriated by Congress on weapons systems • Budget and Impoundment ControlAct (1974) – Congress passed it in an effort to tighten it reigns over the executive use of impoundment • Diplomatic Recognition – recognizing a foreign nation by a President when Congress may have failed to recognize as legitimate  ex: George Washington recognizing revolutionary France • Confirmation Power – Senate power of accepting, or rejecting selected Presidential appointments • Congressional Oversight (accountability) – the Congressional monitoring and reviewing the Executive Branch’s implementation of existing laws  Federalist 51 Chapter 4: The Formative Years of American Foreign Policy • Jay Treaty (1794) – restored commercial ties between the US and Britain • Rapproachment – establishment of cordial ties between the Us and Britain • XYZAffair – French covert action in which 3 men and a woman attempted to extort an American envoy with cash for a negotiated resolution between French and US after France’s navy had been halting US merchant vessels • Impressment – naval recruitment by force: kidnapping ofAmericans to serve as sailors on British warships • Embargo Act (1807) – embargo on the export ofAmerican goods to Britain in response to a British attack on the USS Chesapeake • Treaty of Ghent (1814) – ended the War of 1812 between the US and Britain • Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817) – US’s first significant arms control pact, the British and theAmerican’s contracted to remove their naval ships from the Great Lakes • Adams-Onis Treaty (1821) – the Florida territory was given to the US in exchange for assurances that Spain could enjoy rule over Texas and the Southwest • Monroe Doctrine (1823) – the nations of the Western Hemisphere were “henceforth not to be considered subjects of colonization by any European powers”  establishment of US control in the Western Hemisphere • Manifest Destiny – coined by John L. O’Sullivan that the US could overspread and posses the whole continent which Providence has given us • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) – US ended the war with Mexico and acquired all of New Mexico, California, and extension of Texas’s border to the Rio Grande • Extraterritoriality – purpose was to seek the extension of US law to coverAmerican citizens in foreign nations  ex: US charged citizens w/ crimes in China could have trial in US • Gunboat Diplomacy – intimidation by military force when Commodore Matthew C. Perry took the navy into Tokyo and China to deliver a letter from President Pierce in order to establish trade with the 2 countries, by use of intimidation • Olney Corollary – Secretary State Richard Olney informed London that the US is practically sovereign on this continent, and its fiat is law upon the subject to which it confines its interpositions  happened during the UK-Venezuela dispute and was an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine because Olney claimed it allowed the US to mediate border disputes in the Western Hemisphere • Dollar Diplomacy – an approach toAmerican Foreign Policy based on advancing private US commercial interests • Open-Door Diplomacy – each major power—including the US—would have a sphere of influence of trade in China that had to be honored by either nations • Boxer Rebellion – resistance movement in China to “kill the foreigners (Japan and US businessmen)”  led to diplomatic resolution in which China received commercial benefits • Realpolitik – perspective that international affairs were to be based not on theoretical or ethical considerations, but on practical and material objectives • Roosevelt Corollary – Amendment to the Monroe Doctrine that said the US could interfere in Latin American affairs by serving as the international police • Big Stick Diplomacy – brandishing the military instruments of foreign policy to persuade adversaries toward an acceptance of theAmerican point of view  often coupled with dollar diplomacy (promoting US commercial interests) • Zimmerman Telegram – telegram to Germany’s Mexican envoy that ordered envoy to seek a pact of aggression with Mexico against the US should theAmerican’s enter into war with Germany (during WWI). Mexico would then receive the return of Texas, New Mexico, andArizona  was intercepted by British naval intelligence and relayed to the US • League of Nations – international IGO that would exercise collective action by the civilized nations of the world for the purpose of preventing future wars  Wilson’s 14 Points laid out the plan, but the US would never join • Treaty of Versailles (1919) – terms that ended WWI in 1914 • Kellog-Baird Treaty – devised by US and 15 other nations from 1922-1928 that ended with major agreement that war is renounced as an instrument of national policy  62 nations endorsed it, the US was skeptical but signed; only added to a little internationalism in US policy • Good Neighbor Policy – FDR removed all US troops south of the Rio Grande, except for those in the Panama Canal Zone to stop influence in LatinAmerica  he instead focused on rebuilding US economy and keeping watch on Japan, Germany, and Italy • Appeasement – the attempt to satiate fanatics by yielding to their demands  ex: British and France giving Hitler Sudetenland, so that he won’t invade and take over Czechoslovakia • United Nations – International organizations that came about at the end of WWII; very flawed because there was no international enforcement aspect to halt military aggression • MutuallyAssured Destruction (MAD) – US and USSR ability to retaliate against each other with nuclear weapons in a massive counter-response Chapter 5: The Cold War and the Doctrine of Containment • Containment Doctrine – containing the threat of communism, coined by George Keenan that became US strategy against communism • Truman Doctrine (1947) – President’s Truman’s proclamation of a Greek-Turkish Foreign aid package of US military and economic support before the USSR could assist them; there was a fear that communism would begin to spread • McCarthyism – tactics of smear and innuendo by Senator Joseph McCarthy in which he, w/o hard evidence, proclaimed communist intrusion at the highest levels of US government  many claims were false and ruined careers, but it did lead to the discovery of British spy Klaus Fuchs in the Manhattan Project • National Security Council Memorandum No. 68 – the assault of free institutions is worldwide now, and in the context of present polarization of power a defeat of free institutions anywhere is a defeat everywhere  Cold War was seen as a zero-sum game, any communist gain was a US loss • Berlin Blockade – the USSR cut off all supply routes to Berlin except for a narrow air corridor; showed that the USSR would go to extreme measures against the Western powers • Marshall Plan (European Recovery Program) – US plan to strengthen the European economy through infusion of billions of dollars in economic aid • NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) –America’s first peacetime military alliance; Senate approved treaty  placed US troops permanently in Europe • Warsaw Pact – military alliance between the USSR and Eastern European countries • Massive Retaliation – Eisenhower policy of a counterattack strategy based on using America’s full nuclear arsenal in wake of an attack • Flexible response – Kennedy policy of importance to prepare to fight at entry-level of combat, from guerilla insurgencies to all-out nuclear warfare • Counterinsurgency Warfare (COIN) – limited of low-intensity warfare, “asymmetrical” or “irregular” wars; strategy includes trying to identify possible allies among foreign locals, then working with them through the use of civic programs (such as building schools and health clinics) –not just armed conflict—to turn the tide the recalcitrant, main enemies in the target nation  ex: programs in Iraq andAfghanistan • Bay of Pigs (1961) – Kennedy operation that did not seek Congressional approval, that failed to overthrow Castro by landing a team of CIA0backed Cuban exiles to liberate and begin a counter-revolution. In reality, most Cubans remained loyal to Castro, and CIA failed to back up liberators with air cover • GenevaAccords (1954) – Switzerland led negotiation that “temporarily” divided th Vietnam at the 17 parallel and scheduled general elections for Vietnam in 1956 • Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963) – required nuclear-weapons testing to be conducted underground; first substantial move towards nuclear arms control • Church Committee – a 16 month senate probe that uncovered a wide array of improper spying operations within the US carried out by the CIAand its companion agencies, as well as CIAassassination plots attempted overseas • Nixon Doctrine – nations in developing world would be expected to use their own—not American troops—to defend themselves • Opening to China – President Nixon and SS Henry Kissinger policy to set out to edge China away from Moscow’s influence • Détente – a period of relaxed tensions between US and the USSR punctuated byArms Control and Trade agreements like SALT I, SALT II, and the HelsinkiAccords • HelsinkiAccords (1975) – signed by President Ford, encourage “respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms,” improved economic/technical cooperation among the signatories, and freer movement of people, ideas, and information between the East and West • Vietnam Syndrome – restraint of the military instrument and covert action in foreign policy due to fatigue in Vietnam • Camp David Accords (1979) – negotiated by President Carter and SS Cy Vance to establish agreements between Israeli and Egyptian leaders to bring peace between the two • The Carter Doctrine (1980) – response to the USSR invasion ofAfghanistan, “any use of outside force to try to gain control of the Persian Gulf oil area will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the US and will be repelled byAmerican military force”  Monroe Doctrine application, CIA trained rebels in Afghanistan • The Reagan Doctrine – the robust use of CIAcovert action to assist nations in their resistance to communism  Iran-contra scandal, CAinAfghanistan • INFTreaty (1987) – US-USSR agreement to remove all intermediate-range nuclear forces from East and West Europe Chapter 6: American Foreign Policy in a Fractured World • New World Order – HW Bush; a time of global peace that would replace the strife that darkened the era of the Cold War • Grand Bargain – a school of thought in the US that agreed with the Germans that a major infusion (combination) of Western Capital and know how, coupled with insistence that the former USSR follow western recommendations on how to revamp their economies was the only way to avoid a backslide into communism • Nunn-LugarAct – congress provided $1 billion dollars to improve security of Russian nuclear warheads and WMD materials • StrategicArms Reductions Talks Treaty (START – 1991) – authorized dramatic cutbacks in the number of strategic nuclear warheads in the US and USSR by 2/3 each • Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty (SORT – 2002) – cut strategic US and USSR arsenals to lowest total in decades to about 2,000 warheads each • Populist Nationalism – people within the same nation who do not seem to agree with some of the populist and nationalist ideology are assigned the status of minorities, suggesting they cannot belong within the authentic body of the national people • Bosnian War – an attack against Croatia in 1992, started by Serbian leaders in Yugoslavia to create a “Great Serbia” • Ethnic Cleansing – a policy of attacks rival ethnic groups with the intent of ridding the area of them • Dayton PeaceAccords (1995) – diplomatic talks brokered by the US among Croats, Bosnians, Muslims, and Serbs that resulted in the division of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines • Kosovo War –Albanian Muslims pushed for greater autonomy and eventually took up arms against Serbian soldiers and police stationed
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