Rising Threats, Enduring Challenges
Part I: Historical Perspectives
Farewell Address (1796) - George Washington
• Main Idea: President George Washington argues that fairness and just conduct is essential
inAFP, but warned that long-term friendship is detrimental to the new country.
Unnecessary wars could take place out of these friendships. Be cautious of the world.An
argument for isolationism.
The Monroe Doctrine (1823) - James Monroe
• Main Idea: President Monroe determines that no one else is allowed to pursue
civilizations in Latin America, that remaining civilizations may stay, but any new
attempts will be met withAmerican force. Basically, the US laid claim to LatinAmerica
and threatened to repel other forces like Spain and Portugal
Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) - Theodore Roosevelt
• Main Idea: President Roosevelt extends the Monroe Doctrine from US intervention in
LatinAmerica to US intervention in the Western Hemisphere. It more markedAmerican
Imperialism, than standing up for other nations and repelling European nations.
Intervention in ailing states would now be conducted so that it could not be conducted by
the European powers.
Fourteen Points Speech (1918) - Woodrow Wilson
• Main Idea: President Wilson urges for a creation of a League of Nations that promote free
trade, freedom of the seas, disarmament, self determination of peoples, democracy and
diplomatic transparency. By the way of institutions, the world could win the "final war
for human liberty".
The Sources of Soviet Conduct - "X" (George Keenan)
• Main Idea: Keenan argues that the allies should try to contain Soviet expansion through
hard power opportunities at certain geopolitical points.--Western Europe and Japan. This
is generally seen as the realists basis for hard power usage.
Fireside Chat 19: On the War with Japan (1941) - Franklin Delano Roosevelt
• Main Idea: Roosevelt addresses the timeline in which the US will attack and enter the
War. He says thatAmerica must prevail for future generations so that we may live and
strive. He mentions that the notion of isolationism is over, as the US must be in tune and
involved in world affairs, in order to ensure its survival.
Graduation Speech at West Point (2002) - George W. Bush
• Main Idea: Speech that marks the beginning of the Bush Doctrine.Abandons containment
and adopts idea of preemtive and prevenative attacks. Established theAxis of Evil and
the justification ofAmerican hegemony, unilateralism, and power.
Speech on Libya (2011) - Barack H. Obama
• Main Idea: US has the responsibility to intervene in other nations to protect from
genocide and war crimes. Led to NATO intervention in the Qaddafi regime of Libya.
Part II: Theory and Grand Strategy One World, Rival Theories – Jack Snyder
• Main Idea: Three main theories are behind almost all international relations: Liberal,
Realist, and Constructivist. The Liberal Theory argues that through state cooperation and
institutions and globalization, countries will be come more democratic and, therefore,
more peaceful. The Realist Theory argues that states are self-seeking in an archaic world
and that stronger economies and military's can help states reach their most powerful
points, creating a peaceful world based on deterrence. The Constructivist Theory argues
that values and moral create positive foreign policy and international relations.All three
are flawed and all three also have a role in the international system and foreign policy.
Why We Fight Over Foreign Policy – Henry Nau
• Main Idea:All foreign policy decisions can be made from differing perspectives.
Depending on the perspective that you follow could control the outcome of your decision.
During the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, a Neoconservative (blend of liberalism and realism)
helped the Bush administration determine that a link between Iraq and terrorist leader
Osama bin Laden existed and that the possible WMDs could only be defeated with a
widespread military campaign to demonstrate the upholding up democracy. Had the Bush
administration had differing opinions the War in Iraq could have been handled in a
different way. Differing views make for a more complete overview of the issue at hand.
Hypotheses on Misperception - Robert Jervis
• Main Idea: Jervis concludes that leaders psychological perceptions have a profound
effect on his or her view of foreign policy and decision making. Because having an
unbiased view is nearly impossible to achieve, leaders perceptions (and misperceptions)
will always play a role in the way that they conduct foreign policy and leadership in
general. Different circumstances lead to different understandings and analysis, which
leads to misperceptions in some cases. Perspectives of various actors and their positions
also makes decision making more complex.
The Clash of Civilizations? - Samuel P. Huntington
• Main Idea:Aclash of various civilizations will increase due to six main reasons: there are
basic, and real differences between civilizations; the world is becoming smaller and more
globalized; people are being seperated from local identities because of economic
modernization and social change; their is a dual role in the West, they are at the peak of
their power and also returning to their roots; cultural characteristics and differences are
less mutable and less easily compromised than economic and political ones; and
economic regionalism, or blocs, are increasing. Huntington argues that because of these
vital differences between cultures along with the chaning world, differing ideologies will
continue to conflict at a larger rate, pinning the Western world in a battle with hundereds,
if not thousands of ideas that are vastly differenet from its own, Because of this the West
will have to accomodate non-Western society, learning to live in peace with different
cultures. Fairly racist...
Public Diplomacy and Soft Power - Joseph Nye
• Main Idea: Soft power is the ability to influence through action and example; moral and
cultural suasion and attracting others. This ability rests on shaping others to the
preferences of yourself. By using culture, political values, and foreign policies, countries are able to create this soft power. With the help of globalization and the "Information
Age", soft power is becoming a more used practice in daily communications (explaining
the context of domestic and foreign policy decisions), strategic communications
(develops a set of themes for domestic and foreign policy decisions), and building
relationships. Nye argues that soft power makes the US more likeable in the world
system, but we must know when to use it, as we must know when to use hard power
(economic and military might). By blending these two schools of thought ("smart
power") the US has an easier path to success.
The Age of Nonpolarity - Richard N. Haas
• Main Idea: The world is now in a state of "nonpolarity" because of the rise of multiple
different entitites and actors that possess and exercise multiple kinds of power, and the
contribution of globaization that now connect the world. The role of the US is becoming
increasingly less and less centered in the world, as emerging states, actors, and groups all
contribute to foreign policy and affect the decisions that are made in the international
system. With more integration the complicated diplomatic relations of nonpolarity can
become more stabilized as cooperation between the multitude of actors increases.
Imperial By Design - John J. Mearsheimer
• Mearsheimer argues that the US would benefit greatly from off-shore balancing, a notion
that involves pulling US troops and bases out of certain regions , and containing these
regions by making sure that no one country (except the US) becomes a hegemon. The
three regions in question is the Middle East, SoutheastAsia, ad Europe. Mearsheimer
argues that keeping militarys on the "horizon" is a better option than having them in a
particular region because it makes the host region feel less threatened and less likely to
retaliate against US forces. He argues that a robust military would ensure that the US
remains the worlds only hegemon, but that it must be stationed off shore or in the US
homeland. He concludes by saying terrorism, nuclear warfare and "nation building"
would all benefit by keeping US troops out of certain regions and only interfering when
Part III: Institutio