VPHY 3100- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 31 pages long!)

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Chapter 6: interactions between cells & the extracellular environment. 3 components that comprise any given cell: cytoplasm, cell membrane, and nucleus. The extracellular space contains: water, carbohydrate, and protein. Movement through the cell membrane: diffusion & osmosis. Ethanol can enter a cell via simple diffusion through the cell membrane. Movement through the cell membrane: carrier-mediated transport. Nucleus (not included under organelles because it"s made by the er, double membrane)- look up. Get through the membrane through ion channels, pumps, carriers. *1/3 is contained in extracellular spaces like blood, tissue fluid. 80% as interstitial fluid (non-vascular tissue fluid ) aka all the extracellular space that exist in our body besides blood plasma. The extracellular environment includes everything that lies outside of cells. **phospholipids are amphipathic (has hydrophobic and hydrophilic portion which is key to a phospholipid by layer) because they: contain both hydrophilic head groups and hydrophobic tail groups. Molecular oxygen and gases, small alcohols, urea, some water (aquaporins transport water).