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Final Study Guide .docx

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PSYC 3230

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TEST 1 1. Apsychologist wishes to test the hypothesis that the experience of chronic physical pain can cause clinical depression, but the Ethics Committee of his university won't allow him to conduct a study in which he inflicts pain on the subjects. What kind of research design might best allow the psychologist to test this hypothesis while circumventing the committee's objection? c. Analogue 2. The humanistic perspective focuses primarily upon the capacity of the individual to d. engage in positive self-growth. 3. Resilient children b. may still experience emotional distress. 4. Benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following EXCEPT c. taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders. 5. People in the MiddleAges d. believed that most witches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways. 6. What is the most prevalent grouping of psychological disorder? a. Anxiety disorders 7. The insanity associated with general paresis d. results from an infection of the brain. 8. The early asylums a. were primarily warehouses for the mentally ill. 9. The four parenting styles described in the text differ along two dimensions, warmth and control. The style associated with the most positive developmental outcome is best described as ________ in warmth and ________ in control. c. high; moderately high 10. Lasting negative effects of abuse on psychological functioning are most likely when the abuse occurs in a. early childhood. 11. According to Freud, a person who does not appropriately resolve each psychosexual stage would be ___________ at that stage. b. fixated 12. The physicians of Alexandria, Egypt, in the era afterAlexander the Great were most likely to treat mental patients by d. providing activities, massage, and education. 13. Why is it important to know how many people have diagnosable mental illnesses? a. Such information is needed to plan for the provision of adequate services. 14. The study of hypnosis and its relationship to hysteria was the starting point for c. psychoanalysis. 15. Most mental health treatment a. occurs in an outpatient setting. 16. Alack of social skills, poor school performance, and moodiness have all been associated with which of the following parenting styles? d. Neglectful-uninvolved 17. If trait is highly heritable, it would be expected that c. the concordance rate for monozygotic twins would be greater than the concordance rate for dizygotic twins. 18. Dorothea Dix d. is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries. 19. Etiology is b. the causal pattern of a disorder. 20. One ofAristotle's major contributions to psychology was d. his description of consciousness. 21. What does Monique's case best illustrate? b. Abnormal behavior covers a wide range of behavioral disturbances. 22. John Bowlby's attachment theory emphasized b. the quality of parental care in forming attachments. 23. One of Freud's major contributions to current perspectives of mental disorders is b. the concept of the unconscious and how it can affect behavior. 24. Which of the following has been shown to reduce stigma of the mentally ill? c. Increasing contact with individuals who have a mental illness 25. The disorders first recognized as having biological bases are best characterized as disorders that a. involved significant damage to brain tissue. 26. According to Hippocrates, mental disorders were part of which three general categories? c. Melancholia, mania, and phrenitis. 27. Aristotle believed that b. mental disorders could not be caused by psychological factors. 28. The ancestral roots of what we now know as psychoanalysis can be traced back to a. the study of hypnosis. 29. Schemas b. may be a source of psychological vulnerability. 30. Which of the following was a consequence of the rise of the mental hygiene movement and the occurrence of biomedical advances? a. The social and psychological environments of mental patients were ignored. 31. The disorder Koro, where males fear that their genitals have retracted into their body, possibly leading to death, is similar to the episodes of mass madness during the Black Death because b. both demonstrated the effect that sociocultural stressors can have on mental functioning of large groups of people. 32. Hippocrates suggested marriage as a cure for b. hysteria in women. 33. Stereotyping is an example of the stigma of mental illness. It means c. the automatic and often incorrect beliefs people have about people with mental illness. 34. Dr. Simon, a psychiatrist, takes a biopsychosocial viewpoint of psychopathology. Which of the following treatments is he most likely to suggest for Julia's current state of depression? c. Acombination of psychological therapy and antidepressant drugs 35. From the cognitive-behavioral perspective, an important limitation with the behavioral perspective is the fact that b. behaviorists failed to attend to the importance of mental processes. 36. Which of the following is an example of an analogue study? b. Rats prenatally exposed to alcohol are studied to further our understanding of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. 37. It is a hot day and a child sprays you with a garden hose. You might react with amusement (and even thanks!) or considerable anger. The fact that one event can be interpreted in different ways is central to the ________ approach to therapy. c. cognitive 38. What type of prevalence estimate tends to be highest? c. Lifetime prevalence 39. According to early beliefs, what would characterize an individual with an excess of blood? d. Cheerfulness 40. Learning not to do something because you are punished when you do it is an example of c. instrumental conditioning. EXAM 2 1. What role does the social context play in assessment? b.An evaluation of the environment in which the client lives is necessary in order to understand the demands she faces, as well as the supports that are present. 2. Avalid test a. measures what it is designed to measure. 3. Stress slows the healing of wounds by as much as ___ to ___ percent. c. 24; 40. 4. Stress tolerance is c. a person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired. 5. For an adjustment disorder, the symptoms must appear within __________ months of the stressor? c. three 6. Since it was first published, the DSM has a. become more objective. 7. Which of the following is an assumption of a categorical approach to abnormal behavior? b. Each disorder has unique symptoms. 8. Research by Exner and others has shown that the Rorschach c. can be scored by computer, thereby increasing its reliability. 9. For which of the following would the use of stress-inoculation training be most effective? a. Preparing for chemotherapy 10. What does it mean if Carol scores high on the Schizophrenia scale of the MMPI? d. Carol's answers were comparable to those given by a group of schizophrenics. 11. One advantage of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the CAT scan is that the MRI b. provides better differentiation and clarity. 12. Which of the following would be used to reveal a dysrhythmia in brain activity? b. EEG 13. What was not a result of the psychological stress following being a prisoner of war? b. More diabetes 14. Dr. Vera says, "It may only provide a limited view of a person's problems, but it is important for planning appropriate treatment. Administratively, it is essential so that a facility can know what kinds of problems clients need help with. Even if we don't want to do it, insurance claims require it." What is Dr. Vera is referring to? a. Formal diagnosis 15. As in assessment, diagnostic interviews can be a. structured or unstructured. 16. According to your textbook, what percentage ofArmy soldiers and Marines in Iraq report that they have been attacked or ambushed? d. 92% 17. Which of the following will lower a soldier's risk of developing PTSD? b. Believing strongly in the goals of the combat 18. Crisis is d. when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual. 19. During WWII, the descriptors of the traumatic reactions seen to combat conditions b. placed too much emphasis on physical exhaustion. 20. If a diagnosis is made by comparing subjects to a "model" of an illness, which type of classification scheme is being used? c. Prototypical 21. Which of the following demonstrates reliability? d. When an IQ test is administered to the same person repeatedly, the results do not differ. 22. In which of the following circumstances would a psychosocial assessment clearly need to be used? c. Ever since the divorce, James has been sleeping less and less. 23. In DSM-IV-TR, psychosocial stressors d. are specified onAxis IV. 24. Arielle was in a terrible car accident in which several people were killed.Afew weeks later, she began to talk about what happened. She told the story to anyone who would listen. This seems to be a. a way to reduce anxiety and desensitize herself to the experience. 25. Dr. Hunter is studying depression. He decides that he will divide his subjects into depressed and nondepressed groups using information about their response to a loss. He has found that 96% of people feel hopeless and sad for about 3 weeks after a loss. So he decides that any subject who has continued to feel this way for more than 3 weeks will be considered depressed. He is using a b. dimensional approach. 26. In order to be considered a severe stressor, the stressor must c. cause significant disruption to a person's functioning. 27. The empirical keying approach to making a test like the MMPI involves C. picking items that differentiate between different groups, no subjective judgment is needed. 28. Ed has suffered a head injury in a car accident. He is referred to a psychologist to see what types of impairment now exist and to get some suggestions for treatment. The best assessment strategy would be b. neuropsychological tests. 29. Under what circumstances is a structured interview most likely to be used? a. When consistent information is needed for research purposes 30. B-cells are b. cells that produce antibodies. 31. Psychological assessment refers to the a. procedures used to summarize a client's problem. 32. Which of the following is a criticism of the life event scales? b. They limit the kind of events that can be reported. 33. Stress-inoculation training a. involves learning new ways to think about an anticipated threat and then applying these techniques to several different types of threats. 34. The use of standardized psychological tests b. permits the clinician to determine how a client's behavior compares to some reference group. 35. Stress-inoculation training c. is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact of an anticipated threat. 36. In the final phase of stress-inoculation training b. newly acquired coping skills are applied. 37. Which of the following represents normal blood pressure? c. 120/80 38. According to your textbook, which of the following is a factor that increases resilience? b. Being older 39. Joanne says that she cannot say "no" to her intrusive mother. Her therapist has her pretend to engage in such an interaction to assess how weak Joanne's assertiveness skills really are. This illustrates the use of b. role-playing. 40. Which of the following best explains why the Rorschach is less likely to be used today? b. Treatment facilities often require other types of information than the Rorschach provides and insurance companies do not pay for it. TEST 3 1. If a pharmaceutical company were looking for a drug that would maximally treat generalized anxiety disorder they would want one that c. increased GABAlevels while regulating serotonin. 2. The fact that dirt and contamination were threats to our ancestors suggests a. that preparedness theory may help explain obsessive-compulsive disorder. 3. Which statement about the risk of suicide is true? c. About half of people who complete suicide do so during or in the recovery phase of a depressive episode. 4. Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of panic disorder? a. Uncued panic attacks 5. Ahypomanic episode is best described as a a. mild manic episode. 6. Gradual exposure to feared cues is b. a common component of treatment for all anxiety disorders. 7. "Postpartum blues" are b. common, usually brief, and not a disorder. 8. Which of the following statements is correct in regard to the role of cognitions in panic? b. Panic clients are more likely to interpret bodily sensations as catastrophic events. 9. Compared to anxiety, panic is d. more intense. 10. The main way to tell someone is having an uncued panic attack rather than is in a state of fear is c. if he or she has a subjective belief that something awful is about to happen. 11. Quentin is severely depressed and presents an immediate and serious suicidal risk. In the past he has not responded to tricyclics. Awise course of action is to treat him with b. electroconvulsive therapy because it can rapidly reduce symptoms. 12. Anxiety disorders b. probably exist in all societies, but take different forms in different cultures. 13. Which of the following is a research finding that is inconsistent with the monoamine hypothesis of depression? b. Increases in noradrenergic activity have been seen in the brains of depressed patients. 14. Which of the following is a hormonal abnormality associated with both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression? d. Increased cortisol levels 15. Margaret has been suffering with dysthymia for several years and has sought treatment on several occasions.About one month ago she developed more severe symptoms of depression, which have been maintained almost daily. The condition she is experiencing is best described as a. double depression. 16. The effectiveness of Valium (or benzodiazepines) in treating GAD supports the hypothesis that c. a GABAdeficiency underlies GAD. 17. Which statement best describes the relationship between mood disorders and domestic distress? a. Critical comments trigger negative affect in the spouse. 18. Panic disorder is best described as a(n) ________ condition. a. chronic 19. Behaviorally inhibited young children are more likely to develop specific phobias. This is an example of a ________ causal factor. d. biological 20. Evolutionary preparedness explains d. why some types of phobias are much more common than others. 21. Which of the following provides evidence against a role for inherited factors In the development of phobias? b. The impact of nonshared environmental factors 22. The new DSM classification, which omits the concept of neurosis, is an improvement because c. diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined. 23. When do phobias like claustrophobia and driving phobia begin? a. Adolescence 24. One of the main problems with the worry in generalized anxiety disorders is b. it is a form of avoidance and prevents extinction. 25. Social phobia c. involves a fear of one or more specific social situations. 26. Panic attacks, by definition, c. require the presence of at least 4 of 13 characteristic symptoms. 27. The majority of individuals whoATTEMPT suicide are ________ and the majority of those who COMPLETE suicide are ________. a. women and people between age 18 and 24; men and people over age 65 28. Which of the following is true of unipolar major depression? d. It is the most prevalent mood disorder. 29. Independent life events are those that b. are out of the client's control. 30. Cross-cultural studies of mood disorders are made difficult due to d. differences in diagnostic practices. 31. Which of the following might explain why rates of depression are low in China and Japan? c. Symptoms of depression tend to be discussed as somatic. 32. Sam has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. He tells you that he is certain the world will end next Tuesday because everyone in it is so wicked. He refuses to consider that he might be wrong. Sam has a. mood congruent delusions. 33. What is the most important characteristic used to distinguish dysthymia from major depression? c. Whether there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder. 34. Individuals who suffer from phobias c. are unlikely to have other psychological diagnoses. 35. Most people with obsessive-compulsive disorder c. experience both obsessions and compulsions. 36. Freud suggested that depression d. was anger turned inward. 37. Seasonal affective disorder is best described as a ________ depressive disorder. d. recurrent 38. What do all of the compulsions seen in OCD have in common? c. They are engaged in as means of alleviating tension. 39. Why is it not wise to treat an individual who has a bipolar disorder with an antidepressant? a. The drug may trigger a manic episode. 40. Nicole's mother is terribly afraid of snakes. Although Nicole has never actually seen a snake, her mother has told her time and again to be careful to look for them when she is walking. Now Nicole has an intense fear of snakes and refuses to walk in the grass. This is an example of b. classical conditioning of a phobia. EXAM 4 1. Ginger suffers from anorexia. She is often angry and irritable. These feelings a. may be the result of her starving herself. 2. After learning of her father's death, Sophia felt dazed and confused but still retained her sense of self. When speaking of her response to the news, she said she felt like she was in a movie watching the events happening to her. Despite this strange feeling, she understood what was happening and did the things that she needed to do. What can be said of Sophia's response to her father's death? b. She experienced an instance of derealization. 3. Sociocognitive theory a. explains why symptoms of DID are often not seen until after treatment is initiated. 4. Our current knowledge of the efficacy of treating eating disorders d. suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy is the treatment of choice. 5. Which of the following is an explanation for the increased prevalence of DID? a. Increased public awareness of DID. 6. Binge-eating disorder b. has not yet been formally recognized as a distinct clinical syndrome. 7. Which of the following disorders was once the most frequently diagnosed disorder among soldiers in World War I? b. Conversion disorder 8. The most common quality of parents' interactions with their daughters who have eating disorders is c. control. 9. Which of the following factors is associated with an increased risk for obesity? d. Low parental education 10. Which of the following is a way to distinguish between someone with conversion disorder and someone who is malingering? d. If their symptoms are shown to be inconsistent, people with conversion disorder become very defensive while malingerers do not. 11. Which of the following is likely to put whites at higher risk of developing an eating disorder than non-whites? a. Body dissatisfaction 12. Once a dissociative fugue ends, people c. can remember their past but cannot remember what happened during the fugue. 13. In the treatment of eating disorders, medications b. may be useful in treating depressive and psychotic symptoms, but are not a primary treatment. 14. What disorders are often comorbid with eating disorders? d. depression and personality disorders 15. Dan's various medical complaints and hospital stays finally led him to psychiatrist. After a thorough medical and psychological evaluation, the twenty-eight-year-old teacher and father of two was diagnosed with both depression and somatization disorder. What is atypical about this case summary? b. Somatization disorder is seen much more commonly in women. 16. An example of dissociative trance disorder is d. a person who believes he or she is at times possessed by a spirit and is extremely upset because of this. 17. According to sociocognitive theory, d. DID may develop when a suggestive patient is treated by an overzealous clinician. 18. Felicia has been diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, purging type. We should expect that she c. experiences electrolyte imbalances and mineral deficiencies. 19. People with predominantly psychogenic (psychologically caused) pain tend to b. adopt an invalid lifestyle, visiting many doctors in search of relief. 20. Which statement about the treatment of eating disorders is most accurate? b. Family support and the patient's commitment to change are important to lasting recovery. 21. Ellen is underweight but not less than 85 percent of normal body weight. She often restricts her eating because she is intensely fearful of becoming fat. She binges and purges at least twice a week. According to the DSM-IV-TR she should be diagnosed b. with Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. 22. In what way was Freud's view of conversion disorder consistent with behavioral theories? c. He believed that the symptoms of conversion disorder were maintained by the relief from anxiety they provided. 23. In which of the following countries are at least one-third of adults obese? d. United States 24. Somatization disorder a. involves multiple symptoms of at least four different types. 25. Alack of body distortions among theAmish d. suggests that there should be a low prevalence of eating disorders among these peoples. 26. Research on hypochondriasis has shown that people with the disorder tend to b. overestimate the dangerousness of diseases. 27. Why is family therapy currently being investigated as a treatment for anorexia? b. Healthier family relationships have been found to affect treatment outcome. 28. Why has there been little systematic research conducted on dissociative amnesia and fugue? d. These conditions are too rare to permit more extensive study. 29. Andrea has anorexia nervosa, restricting type. Which of the following behaviors would you expect her to have? b. Cutting up her food into little pieces when she eats 30. In her mid-thirties, Cheryl became preoccupied with her weight and began dieting and exercising. After losing a substantial amount of weight, she was still not happy with how she looked and continued to restrict her food intake. After several fainting spells resulting from her low calorie intake, her employer referred her to a clinician who recognized the signs of anorexia nervosa. Which of the following is unique about Cheryl's case? a. Eating disorders rarely start during the mid-thirties 31. Which of the following is most suggestive of dissociative identity disorder? d. Kyla could not recall where she had been or what she had done all day. 32. Which of the following characterizes most anorexia nervosa patients inAsia? c. Fear of stomach b
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