COMD 1333 Midterm: Childhood Language Disorders Test 3

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Communication Sciences and Disorders
COMD 1333
Ross Byron

Childhood Language Disorders Test 3  Language Disorder o Impaired comprehension and or use of sponken and/or written and/or other system o Can involve problems with:  Form and/or content and/or use o Occurs if different from age- match peers of similar cultural and linguistic backgrounds  Language disorder vs. cultural differences  Delay vs. Disorder o Classify a child with a language delay implies that the child will catch up  50% of late talkers will eventually catch up (2 words together)  How to solve is language bombardment or parallel talk o Classify a child with a disorder or impairment implies the child is significantly different from peers in comprehension and/or use of a language system o Etiology (cause)  Primary Disorder  Does not have any other disorders  Secondary disorder  Child has some developmental or acquired disabilities that in term affect language disorders (autism)  Manifestation  How is it expressed  Does it affect compression, expression or both (form, content, use or all)  Prevalent Types of Language Disorders o Language as a second disorder  Specific language impairment  Autism Spectrum Disorders  Cognitive Imparment  Brain Injury o Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  Recently removed from the DSM 5  Significant impairment in expression and/or comprehension of language  Cannot be attributed to any other casual condition  Diagnosed after 3 years old  Many late talkers outgrow by this point  Hallmark Characteristics  Inconsistant skills across the many domains  Verb use problems o Use verbs less frequently than peers; fewer verbs  Social Skills, behavior and attention problems o Problems with conversational skills, making inferences about emotions  Slow vocabulary growth o EX: Produce the first word around 2 not 1 like the typical child o Slow development of new words continue through elementary school  Word Finding Trouble o Trouble finding the right word for a situation o Might use the word thing and stuff o Naming errors such as calling a shirt a jacket and vise versa  Persistant problems over course of a lifetime o Most kids who have SLI as preschoolers still have weak skills as teenagers o Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  Recently changed in the DSM 5  1 in 68 have now  2 Basic Characteristics  Problems with social communication o All 3 areas of social interaction must be impaired  Social emotional reciprocity  Feel someones pain and laughing  Nonverbal communication  Can not understand gestures (no eye contact)  Developing and understanding relationships  Restricted patterns of interest o Repetitive movement (pacing) o Need for routine o Highly fixated intrests o Hypo/hyper sensitive to things  Onset before 3 years old  No one cause  Biological (brain function, pathways, Theory of mind)  Genetic Component (twin studies, increase sibling link)  Environmental (vaccines, pollution, diet) o Do vaccines speed up autism o More heavily polluted = more cases o Gluten Free diet (no imperial data)  Identified through behavioral means unless a biological marker is found  Severity:  1 level: Requires support: high functioning  2 level: Requires substantial support  3 level: requires the most substantial support: low functioning  Language Characteristics o Language delay is usually the first sign of a disorder o Prevelance of atypical language use  Echolalla: Echo back: repeat  Pronormial Confusion: incorrect use of pronouns  Dsyprosody ( Unusual pitch, rhythm, or talking in a cartoon voice)  Nonliteral language difficulties  Idioms, jokes, indirect speech  Context base usuage  Can only use concepts in the context they were used Cognitive Impairment  Intellectual Disability o AKA mental retardation o Defined based on two things:  Limitation in intelligence  Difficulties with reasoning, planning, problem solving, abstract thinking, learning skills  Limitation in adaptive behavior and activities of daily living  Difficulties in communication, academic endeavors, self-direction, self-care, community participation, employment, health and safety o Etiologies (causes)  Ingestion of toxins during pregnancy  Chromosomal abnormalities  Prematurity (underdeveloped cortex)  Anoxia ( cut off of oxygen to the brain)  Viral infection  Fetal malnutrition o Severity Levels  Mild  85% of individuals with intellectual disabilities  IQ range 50-59  Able to work and maintain relationships  6 grade level of academic achievement  Live independently as adults  Moderate  10% of individuals with intellectual disabilities  IQ range 35-49  Able to work in supervised environments  Difficulty with social conventions  Very easily made the victims or outcasts  Live and work successfully in supervised environments  Severe  3-4% individuals with intellectual disabilities  IQ range 20-34  Aquire very limited/little communication and academic skills  Must be supervised in work and daily lives  Profoundly  1-2% of indivduals  IQ range less than 20  Completely dependent upon external assistance  Work is simple and HIGHLY supervised  Brain Injury o Damage to a persons brain  Prenatal (before birth)  Paranatal (during birth)  Postnatal (after birth) o Focusing on acquired injuries  Leading cause of death for young children  Depending on severity of damage is the severity of the impairment o Causes:  Car accidents, falls, infections, brain tumor, physical abuse  Severity is based on level of consciousness after injury  Aphasia defined o Language disorder: acquired after language competence has been established  Resulting from a neurological injury such as stroke  750,000 strokes a year in US- 4 million surviving strokes o Can affect receptive and/or expressive language o Different categories of Aphasia  Perceptive  Expressive  Fluent  Non-fluent  Impairment of Aphasia o Behavioral symptoms are expressed differently in each individual o Areas affected  Fluency  Motor output  Language comprehension  Reading and writing  Naming  Repition  Disorder Fluency o Fluency refers to the forward flow of speech o Some people have a nonaffluent type of aphasia  Short choppy phrases  Telegraphic productions  Slow labored productions  Grammatical errors o Correlates with injuries the anterior part of the brain such as the frontal lobe  Disorder Motor Output o Aphasia not the same as a motor speech disorder  Aphasia is language based o However motor speech disorders can accompany aphasia o Different diagnosis  Aphasia with apraxia  Aphasia with dysarthria  Disorder Language Comprehension o Language comprehension also referred to as auditory comprehension o Wide range of severity o Most people with aphasia have some trouble with comprehension  Can be mid, moderate, or severe  Problems monitoring their own productions  Don’t know what they said makes no sense  How well they understand others depends upon the complexity if the production  Gestural cues can facilitate comprehension (used as therapy tool)  Disorder Repetition o Repetition is the ability to accurately reproduce verbal stimuli on demand o Difficulty repeating what is nerval o Not a functional skill- this is a diagnosic marker only  Gives us more insight about the nature of impairment  Some aphasia have in tact repetition skills even when spontaneous speech and comprehension and severely impaired  Naming o Anomia: word retrieving problems o Deficit likely to remain after recovery o Nearly all aphasia has some degree of deficits o Par aphasics: patterns of word production errors o Phonemic parapasias: literal transposition of sounds o Semantic: verbal substitution of words in the same sematic category (baseball and football) o Nepotism: Nonsense words  Reading and Writing o All the symptoms of spoken aphasia can be manifested in print as well o Symptoms parallel  People with receptive types of aphasia have trouble comprehending written language  People with expressive have issues with reading  New patients have symptoms parallel Types of Aphasia  Seven major syndromes  Broca’s
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