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HDFS 2317 Study Guide - Summer 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Socioeconomic Status, Heredity, Memory


Department
Educational Psychology
Course Code
HDFS 2317
Professor
Kimberly Schoger
Study Guide
Final

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HDFS 2317

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Lecture 1
The Life-span Perspective
- Development
o Pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues
through lifespan
o Includes growth, but also decline and dying
- Traditional view of development
o Extensive change from birth to adolescence
o Little or no change during adulthood
o Decline in old age
Life-span perspective
Developmental change throughout adulthood as well as during childhood
Human life expectancy
Maximum life spanupper boundary of the human
life span
Currently regarded as 122 years
Life expectancyaverage number of years that a person born in a particular year
can expect to live
Currently 79 years in the United States
Has increased because of Sanitation, nutrition, and medical advances
Characteristics of development according to the
life-span perspective:
Lifelong (conception to grave)
Multidimensional
Multidirectional (can increase or decrease)
Plastic (some characteristics change some stay stable)
Multidisciplinary (studied by psychologists, socialists, parents, teachers, etc.)
Contextual (we develop in diff environments and this effects our trajectories)
Involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss
Constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working
together
Three types of contextual changes
Normative age-graded influences
Similar for individuals sharing the same age group
Milestones like starting to talk, puberty, menopause
Normative history graded influences
Common to people of a particular generation due to historical
circumstances
Ex. Womens movement, assassination of MLK, Vietnam war for ppl born
in early 60s
Ex. For us, terrorism, violence in schools, social media
Nonnormative life events
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Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an
individual’s life
Trauma, abuse, death of a parent
Some contemporary concerns
Health and well-being
Parenting and education
Sociocultural contexts and diversity
Culture: behavior patterns, beliefs, and other products of a people that
are passed on from generation to generation
Cross-cultural studies compare two or more cultures
Ethnicity: characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality
characteristics, race, religion, and language
Socioeconomic status (SES): a person’s position within society based on
occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
Gender: the characteristics of people as males and females
Some contemporary concerns
Social policy
Government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare
of its citizens
Ex. Economics, values, politics
Key concerns in social policy:
Infant/child mortality rates, children, malnourishment,
impoverished families
Older adults and the growing number of older adults
Health-care costs and access to adequate health care
Social supports available to older adults
The Nature of Development
Developmental processes
Biological Processes
Produce changes in an individual’s physical nature
Examples: height, weight, and motor skill changes
Cognitive Processes
Involve changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language
Examples: two-word sentences and solving a puzzle
Socioemotional Processes
Involve changes in an individual’s relationships with other people,
emotions, and personality
Examples: smiling in response to interacting with a playmate
Two rapidly emerging fields
Developmental cognitive neuroscience
Developmental social neuroscience
Periods of development
Developmental perioda time frame characterized by certain features
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