CLCV 115 – Mythology of Rome and Greece .pdf

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Department
Classical Civilization
Course
CLCV 115
Professor
Thrall
Semester
Fall

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CLCV 115 – Mythology of Rome and Greece Final Revision Guide Fall 2013 Jee-Hyun Nam Table  of  Contents   Chapter  1  -­‐  Myths  of  Creation:  The  Rise  of  Zeus  (Part  1)  ..................................................................................  3   Chapter  2  -­‐  Myths  of  Creation:  The  Rise  Of  Zeus  (Part  2)  .................................................................................  6   Chapter  3  –  Myths  of  Zeus,  Hera,  Poseidon  and  Hades  ......................................................................................  8   Chapter  4  –  Myths  of  the  Great  God  Apollo  ..........................................................................................................  11   Chapter  5  –  Myths  of  Hermes,  Pan,  Hephaestus,  and  Ares  .............................................................................  13   Chapter  6  –  The  Female  Deities:  Aphrodite,  Artemis  and  Athena  ...............................................................  15   Chapter  7  –  Myths  of  Fertility:  Demeter  and  Related  Myths  .........................................................................  19   Chapter  7  –  Myths  of  Fertility:  Dionysus  ..............................................................................................................  21   Chapter  8  -­‐  Myths  of  Death:  Encounters  with  the  Underworld  ....................................................................  24   Chapter  9  -­‐  Gilgamesh:  Introduction  to  Heroic  Myth  .......................................................................................  26   Chapter  10  –  Perseus  and  the  Myths  of  the  Argive  Plan  .................................................................................  28   Chapter  11  –  Oedipus  and  the  Myths  of  Thebes  .................................................................................................  31   Chapter  12  –  Theseus  and  the  Myths  of  Athens  .................................................................................................  34   Chapter  13  –  The  Myths  of  Crete  .............................................................................................................................  37   Chapter  14  –  Heracles  .................................................................................................................................................  40   Chapter  15  –  Jason  and  the  Myths  of  Iolcus  and  Calydon  ...............................................................................  43   Chapter  16  -­‐  The  Trojan  War  ...................................................................................................................................  46   Chapter  17  –  The  Fall  of  Troy  and  Its  Aftermath  ...............................................................................................  48   Chapter  16  –  The  Return  of  Odysseus  (Part  1)  ...................................................................................................  51   Chapter  17  –  The  Return  of  Odysseus  (Part  2)  ...................................................................................................  53   Chapter  18  –  Legend  of  Aeneas  ................................................................................................................................  55   Chapter  19  –  Legends  of  Early  Rome  .....................................................................................................................  59           2   Chapter  1  -­‐  Myths  of  Creation:  The  Rise  of  Zeus  (Part  1)   1. Define cosmogony Origin of the world 2. Define theogony Origin of the gods and their rise to power 3. In what tradition are these same? In what tradition are they different? They are different in biblical tradition, however in Greek literature they are conjoined specially in Hesiod’s Theogony 4. What is the principal mythological account of the creation of the world? Who wrote it? When? Hesiod’s Theogony written in the 8 Century BC 5. List three ways in which Hesiod organized traditional stories about the origins of the world and the gods. 1. Thematically: who holds power over what 2. Genealogically: Whose father is who etc. 3. Spatially: The physical aspect, where they were founded 6. What does Chaos mean in Greek? Chasm 7. What were the next three divinities to appear, after Chaos? Where do they end up, spatially, in relation to one another? Gaea – Mother earth and foundation Tartarus – Rules in the underworld. Name’s significance is unknown however is commonly associated with Hades Eros – Oceanid, surrounds the world with water 8. Who does Gaea produce with Uranus? (Name three basic categories of divinity.) 12 Titans (Rhea, Cronus, Oceanus…) Cyclopes (Round-Eyes) Hecatonchires (hundred hands) 9. What do the Cyclopes look like? One Eyed Monster 10. What do the Hecatonchires look like? Monster with 100 hands, 50 heads and has immense power. Hated by Uranus. 11. Name two important roles the Titans played in Hesiod’s version of the origins of the world. 1. Pontus, one of the titans created the sea 2. Gaea and Cronus are the parents of the Olympian gods (Zeus, Hera…)   3   12. Who are descended from Gaea and Pontus? (Name two gods/demigods and three monsters.) Gods/Demigods: Nereus and Poseidon Monsters: Harpies, Sphinx, Gorgons, Cerberus, Hydra, Chimera, Ceto, and Graeae 13. Why does Eros precede the other deities? What does he represent? He makes sure that all the gods will be born as he represents sexual attraction and the creation of new offspring 14. How is Aphrodite born? What does she represent? Aphrodite is born from the foam that is formed from the castrated genitals of Uranus mixed with water and from that foam was Aphrodite born. She represents the goddess of sexual love and passion 15. Who are Hyperion’s children? Helios (Sun God) Selene (Moon) Eos (Dawn) 16. What is the Enuma Elish ? How do events in it relate to those in Hesiod? Babylonian story; there is an ambivalent female and the storm god wins, which shows correlation with Zeus. 17. Who are the Erinyes and what role do they have in myth? The Erinyes are the Furies who have the role to haunt anyone who betrays family and drives them to madness. “Ferocious female spirits who haunt anyone who sheds kindred blood, driving them into madness” 18. Give two examples of succession stories from Hesiod. Cronus’ attack and victory of Uranus Zeus’s attack and victory of Cronus 19. Name two things that are similar in these stories. The son overthrows the father The wife goes against the husband 20. Name one thing that is different. Cronus results in forming the offspring whereas Zeus has them being released.   4   21. What is the difference between Hesiod’s titanomachy and his giantomachy? Titanomachy is the battle of the titans E.g. Zeus overthrows Cronus and sends the titans to Tartarus Giantomachy is the battle of the giants E.g. With the help of Hercules the giants are defeated and the world is divided into Sky (Zeus), Sea (Poseidon) and Underworld (Hades) 22. Who is Typhoeus? Why did Zeus need to fight him? The offspring of Gaea and Tartarus with heads of dragons Zeus was forced to fight him because of Gaea’s anger towards him after he had defeated the titans. 23. Name three other heroes who fight snake-like monsters in Greek myth. 1. Apollo and the Python 2. Hercules and the Hydra 3. Perseus and Medusa 4. Cadmus and the Dragon 24. Name one similarity between the titanomachy and the battle with Typhoeus. In both Titanomachy and Typhoeus, Gaea/The Earth is harmed by fire 25. How is the story of Typhoeus etiological? Typhoeus = Typhoons Typhoeus’ blood covered in a mountain is now known as Mt. Haemus (Bloody) Defeat of Typhoeus beneath Mt. Etna now smokes as a result of Typhoeus’ fire breath 26. What does Hesiod leave out of the story of Typhoeus? Zeus was originally defeated by Typhoeus however Hermes puts Zeus back together and only then did Zeus defeat Typhoeus. 27. Who is Metis and what does she represent? How does Zeus appropriate her special skill. Metis was the titan that made the emetic (thing that makes you puke) for Cronus, in order for him to vomit all the children that he had swallowed. Zeus appropriates her special skill of cleverness by first marrying her but then swallows her while she is pregnant with Athena. 28. Who is descended from Metis and Zeus? How did her birth put an end to the cycle of succession myths Hesiod tells? Athena who was born from Zeus’s Head after swallowing Metis.   5   Chapter  2  -­‐  Myths  of  Creation:  The  Rise  Of  Zeus  (Part  2)     1. Find Mecone/Sicyon, the Caucasus Mountains, and Sumer on a map. 2. Who did most ancient Greeks believe was the creator of humankind? What was he? From what materials did he make humans? Prometheus, the Titan who took Zeus’s side in battle against the Titans Materials: Primeval Earth (containing divine seeds) and water 3. What trick did Prometheus play on Zeus at Mecone? How is the story of this trick etiological? He wrapped bones in fat and presented the deceitful meal to Zeus This story is etiological as it exemplifies the idea of Greek sacrifice (burning bones for the gods) 4. What were the consequences of this trick? Zeus removes fire from the trees that were once used for human and as a result people would starve since they could not cook anything 5. How did Prometheus respond to these consequences? He steals fire from heaven and hides it in a fennel stalk, which could be related to the origin of human ability to kindle and maintain fire. 6. What other benefits, in addition to the one in question (5), did Prometheus confer on humans, according to Aeschylus? Brickmaking, woodworking, the calendar, numbers, writing, animal husbandry, seafaring, medicine, metallurgy, and prophesy 7. What was the consequence, for Prometheus, of deceiving Zeus twice? Who eventually rescues him? He was shackled to a pillar on the top of the mountain where an eagle (symbolism of Zeus) that tore at his regenerating liver. Heracles rescues him by killing the eagle, which does not anger Zeus, as he was already aware of the prophecy. 8. What does the name Prometheus mean? What does the name Epimetheus mean? Prometheus ▯ Fore learner ▯ cleverness and can foretell the future incidents Epimetheus ▯ After learner ▯ stupidity, learns from his mistakes 9. What punishment did Zeus give humans, for the benefits they had received from Prometheus? What author tells this story? “The greatest affliction of all: woman!” – told by Hesiod Zeus sends Pandora with the box and tells her not to open it however she opens it and lets out all the evils showing how women were the cause of all the greatest afflictions   6   10. What does the name Pandora mean? What did the gods give Pandora? Pandora = All-Gifted Given: strength, a goddess’s form, lovely face, womanly skills, desire, heartbreak, love, and immortality 11. What did Pandora give to humans? Gifts from the jar except from hope: Ills, torment, pain, disease, sorrow, labor, and misery 12. Name three other women who destroy men in Greek myth. Clytemnestra ▯ murdered her husband Stheneboia ▯ accused husband of rape Medea ▯ murdered her own children in order to get back at her husband 13. Why does Hesiod call women a “ruinous race and tribe”? How does Pandora’s jar represent all women, in Greek thought? They consume however to not contribute, signifying existence as useless excesses. The jar represents women as containers, where pregnancy is a closed jar. Women are carrying jars around all the time. 14. What are the basic elements of a destruction-of-humanity story (wrath story)? 1. Angry gods through defiance or irritation 2. A few survivors 3. A method of reproducing humanity (i.e. throwing of stones behind the back) 4. Massive Destruction 15. List the metals Hesiod uses to label the ages of humankind in order. In what direction is humanity headed, according to Hesiod? Is this consistent with the Prometheus/Pandora stories? Gold, Silver, Bronze, Heroes, Iron: All heading towards a worsening condition and consistent with the decline of humanity in Prometheus/Pandora stories Gold ▯ Happy, Blessed, The dead become spirits Silver ▯ Children stay young for hundred years then grow up suddenly and die, violent and no respect to the gods Bronze ▯ Born from ash trees, terrible, strong, violent, weapons and houses made of bronze, all about war Heroes ▯ Fought at Thebes and Troy to take Helen back, some heroes never died and were transported back to the “gold age” Iron ▯ Hesiod’s own 16. Which age does not fit the pattern of metallic imagery? Heroes.   7   17. Place Atrahasis, Gilgamesh, Genesis and Ovid’s Metamorphoses on a timeline. Gilgamesh 2000 BCE Atrahasis 1700 BCE Genesis 1400 BCE Metamorphoses 8CE 18. What are the most striking similarities among the Mesopotamian, Hebrew and Ovidian flood stories? Begins with a human failure Then there is a mass destruction Many victims Very few survivors 19. What is an “eponymous” ancestor? Giving one persons’ name to a place 20. Name the two different images used in ancient myths to represent the creation of humans Earth and Seed/Semen, which is derived from agriculture Artisan god making through clay/wind and dust, which is derived from pottery Chapter  3  –  Myths  of  Zeus,  Hera,  Poseidon  and  Hades     1. Find Mt. Olympus on a map. 2. Which six Olympians were descended from Cronus and Rhea? Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Hestia and Demeter 3. Who were the other six? Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, and Hermes. 4. How did Zeus, Poseidon and Hades divide up the world, after the overthrow of the Titans? Zeus gets the Heaven/Sky Hades gets the Underworld Poseidon gets the Seas 5. Why is Hades not an Olympian god? Olympian gods live on Mt. Olympus whereas Hades lives in the underworld. 6. In what ways are the Olympian gods “a projection…of the concerns and activities of the Greeks themselves” (Powell 7 ed. p. 145)? Organized in families, there have sexist attitudes and various problems.   8   7. What is the common root of the names Zeus, Jupiter? What does the name Jupiter mean? Di, which means sky and shining Jupiter means father sky whereas Zeus means simple sky 8. In what area(s) does Zeus exercise power? Weather, Law and Justice, Xenia (hospitality) 9. What are his special animals? What visual signs distinguish Zeus in art? Animals: Bull, Eagle, Goat Visual Signs: Goatskin, Thunderbolt, Aegis (armor with snake tassels) 10. What is dike ? What is xenia ? Give an example from Greek myth of a breech of xenia and its consequences? Dike – To point out, Justice, how things are done, symbolically represents Greek customs Xenia – Hospitality, Friendship to those who are traveling. Example – Paris seduces Menelaus’s wife Helen, which caused the Trojan War. 11. Describe the marriage of Zeus and Hera? Why might the incidents described in Iliad 14 seem humorous? Hera seduces Zeus by using a magically belt that was given by Aphrodite which has the ability to seduce any man. Hera uses this in order to have sex with him as a distraction to help the Greek win the war against the Trojans. This incident can be viewed as humorous as in the Iliad 14, Zeus is trying to seduce Hera by telling her that she is more beautiful for all the women that he has had an affair with. 12. Did their marriage produce any children? Ares the god of war. Hebe the representation of youthful beauty. Eileithyia the goddess of childbirth 13. Name the four groups of daughters born from Zeus and female deities other than Hera. What does each group represent or personify? Moerea (fates), Horae (seasons), Graces (Femininity), Muses (Inspiration) 14. Does Zeus act against the Fates, in Greek myth? Can he? No he does not as it would go against his role as a leader however he does have the ability since he is the god of all gods and has the greatest authority in Greek times. 15. Give examples of allegorical unions of Zeus with female divinities and the children of each. Zeus and Metis = Zeus’ rule combined forces with intelligence giving Athena. Zeus and Themis = Under Zeus’ reign governed by law giving Horae and Moerae.   9   16. What real-life customs do the many extramarital affairs of Zeus reflect? They represent the customs engaged by the aristocratic Athenian men, where they would have sexual relationships with young men and relationships with other women. 17. What mortal boy did Zeus abduct, to serve as his cupbearer? Was their sexual relationship a violation of dike ? Ganymede, the Prince of the royal Trojan house. No. 18. In what area(s) does Hera exercise power? What is her special animal? Marriage and Fertility Special animal: Cow 19. Who is Hephaestus and how did he become crippled? Hephaestus is the god of blacksmiths, metallurgy, sculptors, fire and volcanoes. Was the son of Zeus and Hera. Hera made him crippled as a sign of revenge because the unexplained birth of Athena from Zeus, which made her jealous, therefore threw him out of the heaven down to the earth; where he fell for 12 hours. It was told that she made him asexually. 20. Who did he create, according to Hesiod (Powell, 7 ed. chapter 5)? Pandora, the first women. 21. How does Hephaestus make peace between Zeus and Hera in Iliad 1.561-611? He tells an entertaining story calming Hera down and forgiving Zeus, while passing around a bowl of nectar. 22. In what area(s) does Poseidon exercise power? Movement of Earth, Sea and Thunder of horses. 23. What is his special animal? What visual sign(s) distinguish Poseidon in art? Water Horse, Chariot and always has a Trident (three pointed spear) 24. For what did Poseidon compete with Athena? Who won? Competed with Athena for the allegiance of Athens. Athena won 25. What protégé of Athena did Poseidon try to destroy? Odysseus 26. Why did the Greeks fear Poseidon? They knew too much about the dangers of the sea since Poseidon could always trigger earthquakes, which could lead to huge destruction in no time.   10   27. What does the names Hades mean? In what area(s) does Hades exercise power? Hades means the invisible and he exercises his power in the underworld Chapter  4  –  Myths  of  the  Great  God  Apollo     1. Find Delos and Delphi on a map. 2. In what area(s) does Apollo exercise power? Which areas come later in the history of his worship? He is initially the god of the Plague, however later he represents the sun, prophecy and healing 3. How does he exercise an area of power in Iliad , Book 1? He sends out a plague. Also reacts brutally as one of his priests Chryses has his daughter abducted and sold to Agamemnon, he responds to this by coming down to earth and killing people with his bow. 4. What are his special animals? What visual signs distinguish Apollo in art? The raven, the lyre, a golden Laurel wreath, bow and arrow Easily distinguishable as he does not have a beard compared to other gods. 5. Name the members of Apollo’s “divine family”. Leto, Artemis and Apollo 6. What was Apollo’s connection with the children of Niobe? He and Artemis killed them as punishment for his boasting. 7. What are the Homeric Hymns and when were they written? Is their author the same as the author of the Iliad and Odyssey ? They are 33 poems that define the creation of gods through stories written from 8 to 2 BCE. Homer does not write it. 8. What are the two songs that make up the Homeric Hymn to Apollo ? First song was called “To the Delian Apollo”, which describes how gods were born. Second song was called “To the Delphian Apollo”, which describes the founding of Apollo’s oracle at Delphi. 9. Why was Apollo born on Delos? What did Leto promise the island? Leto was forbidden to give birth by Hera in an area where there was land and saw daylight and the only loophole were on Delos. Leto promises that a temple will be built in honor of Apollo and people from all over the world will come with sacrificial cattle. 10. What is Apollo’s role among the Olympian gods, according to the Homeric Hymn to Apollo ? He was an entertainer through music and dance.   11   11. How did Apollo secure Delphi as his oracle? What title did he earn? Apollo killed the python dragon that earned him the title of Pythian. 12. How does this feat compare with Zeus’ battle against Typhoeus? What does the enemy symbolize? Zeus also defeated a snake (Typhoeus), where the snakes represent chaos, disorder, evil etc. The enemy symbolizes Chaos. 13. How did Apollo find priests for his shrine? He transformed into a dolphin and helped out a Cretan ship at sea to Crisa, the coastal village near Delphi and there revealed himself as a handsome man in his prime at his oracle and made them into his priests. 14. What is miasma and how can it be removed? Miasma means blood pollution and it can only be cleared at the temple of Thesally. 15. What was the omphalos and how did it come to be at Delphi? A stone that was at the center of where two eagles crossed, which was known to be the center of the world. It is also known as the stone that was given to Cronus in the place of Zeus. According to legends, there was an earlier oracle in Delphi that functioned under Gaea and Themis and the shrine once belonged to an earth goddess. 16. Who is the Pythia and what was her historical function? Describe one famous Pythian response. Pythia was a prophetess at Delphi, who body functioned as an instrument for communication with spirits. She told Croesus: “If you make war on the Persians, you will destroy a mighty empire.” 17. What do the Sybil of Cumae, Cassandra, Daphne and Coronis have in common? They all had love affairs with Apollo, however all of them rejected them. 18. How does each of their stories end? Sybil of Cumae: Took away the essence of lasting youth and turned extremely old. Cassandra: No one believes in her prophecy. Daphne: Turned into a laurel tree. Coronis: He kills her after she cheats on him, however she was pregnant when he killer her so he saved the baby . 19. Who was Hyacinth? Who was his counterpart in Zeus’ amorous affairs? Hyacinth was apollo’s love affair, a beautiful young boy that is killed by the jealous wind. Apollo turns him into a flower (hyacinth) Ganymede   12   20. Who was Asclepius? Who raised him? What visual sign distinguishes Asclepius in art? God of medicine, the son of Coronis Chiron, a centaur, raised him Staff with serpent (think pharmacy) 21. In what ways is Apollo subordinated to Zeus in Greek myth? He is shown with no beard. Is younger and newer. Has few children and forced to serve a mortal. Lastly women can resist him easily as evidenced previously. 22. How is Apollo a projection of the concerns and activities of Greek men? How did he represent what some have called “the Hellenic spirit”? 1. Rational thoughts, music and poem. 2. Healing and poetic skills. Chapter  5  –  Myths  of  Hermes,  Pan,  Hephaestus,  and  Ares       H ERMES 1. Find Lemnos and Arcadia on a map. 2. In what area(s) does Hermes exercise power? What visual signs distinguish Hermes in art? He is the protector of travelers He protects thieves and emissaries. Guide of the dead He carries a god’s wand and the caduceus, which is a staff intertwined with two serpents, has winged sandals 3. What is a herm? Define “apotropaic”. Stone pillar with bust on top and an erect phallus (penis) Apotropaic means turn away evil 4. How does Hermes acquire the epithet “Argeiphontes”? He slayed the 100 eyed monster named Argus. 5. Why is Hermes called “psychopompos”? He is like a grim reaper, where psychopompos means soul guide, therefore he travels from the world to the next and leads the dead into the realm of Hades 6. What does Hermes make from the tortoise? What is the subject of his first song? He makes a lyre The story of Zeus and Maia and his conception   13   7. What does Hermes steal from Apollo? What does he do with two of these? Why? He steals Apollo’s cattle. He cooks them and eats them as an offering. 8. What does Hermes do when Apollo arrives in the cave? Hermes pretends to be a helpless baby and carefully spectates the situation. 9. Where do they go to settle their dispute? What is Zeus’ response? Mt Olympus to Zeus, and Zeus demands that Hermes helps Apollo find the cattle. 10. How do Apollo and Hermes become reconciled? Hermes gives Apollo the lyre. P AN 11. In what area(s) does Pan exercise power? What visual signs distinguish Pan in art? He is the God of pastures and fertility. Distinguishable by his goat head and goat hooves (half human half goat) and always has an erect penis. 12. What does Pan’s name mean, etymologically? What English word is derived from his name? To feed, derived from pasture, panic and pastors. 13. Name two nymphs Pan pursued unsuccessfully. Echo and Syrinx 14. Who is Pan’s father? Name two ways that Pan reflects his father. Hermes He is the herding god, he reflects him by being horny and by helping shepherds H EPHAESTUS 15. In what area(s) does Hephaestus exercise power? Why did ancient Greeks have ambiguous feelings toward experts in these areas? Fire, Volcanoes, Blacksmithing. Greeks have ambiguous feelings, as the working of bronze and iron were technologies of central importance, however it is a filthy and dirty job and aristocrats saw this as a lower form of society. 16. What visual signs distinguish Hephaestus in art? Blacksmithing tools Usually seated because he is crippled   14   17. Name two goddesses who were trapped by Hephaestus. Why did he trap them? Hera and Aphrodite Aphrodite because he cheated on him and Hera because she banished her own son due to his disability 18. Which son of Hephaestus steals cattle from Heracles? Cacus A RES 19. In what area(s) does Ares exercise power? War, Battle and Blood lust 20. Name Ares’ four children by Aphrodite. Phobos (Panic), Deimos (Fear), Harmonia (Harmony) and Ceros (Cupid) 21. Name Ares’ two children, as the Roman god Mars, by Rhea Silvia. Romulus and Remus Chapter  6  –  The  Female  Deities:  Aphrodite,  Artemis  and  Athena       1. What principle unites the female Olympians? Give three examples of goddesses who exemplify this principle. Female Olympians seem more to be aspects of single religious concern with the forces in life, both natural and human. Fertility – Demeter, Artemis, Athena Hestia 2. What does the name Hestia mean? Where was her principal shrine in antiquity? Hearth Her shrines are fireplaces in every house and then also in the heart of the city. 3. What visual signs distinguish Hestia in art? Colorless and has a veil. Demeter 4. In what two places was Demeter’s cult strong? Why? At the town of Eleusis near Athens and in Sicily. This is because both areas are heavily based on agricultural products hence the economy is strongest in those areas.   15   5. What visual signs distinguish Demeter in art? She holds a shaft of wheat Aphrodite 6. What are the two origin stories for Eros? Son of Aphrodite/Ares Created at the beginning with Gaea and Tartarus. 7. In what area(s) does Aphrodite exercise power? What visual signs distinguish her in art? She rules in the area of human sexual attraction. In art will mostly be naked 8. What are Aphrodite’s likely historical origins? List the names of her eastern counterparts. Came to Greece through Cyprus. Inanna, Ishtar and Astarte 9. Where was Aphrodite’s cult especially important? What connections did she have to these places? Her cult was especially important in Cyprus and Cytherea because those were the places that were claimed to be where she first came after rising from the sea. 10. What evidence is there that Aphrodite presided over more than heterosexual eros? Sappho’s poems about Aphrodite in the island of Lesbos, which comes from the word lesbians. 11. Name three of Aphrodite’s children. Hermaphrodites (son with Hermes), Priapus and Eros (son with Ares) 12. Who is Pygmalion? Why does he carve a statue of a woman? How does he treat it? How does it come to life? He is the king of Cyprus, who was disgusted by women morality therefore carved a statue that he could love and care for like his ideal women. Seeing this Aphrodite made her into a real person. 13. What does Aphrodite do to Myrrha? Why? Who is Myrrha’s son? She causes her to fall in love with her own father, then personally seduces her father and then converts her into a Myrrhe tree all in order to punish her for claiming to be more beautiful than she is. The son is Adonis 14. Which goddesses never succumb to Aphrodite? Artemis, Hestia and Athena 15. Why does Zeus make Aphrodite herself fall in love? To punish her for bragging that she can even make Zeus long for mortals   16   16. Who is Anchises? What is he doing when Aphrodite found him? Does he recognize her? He is a mortal that Aphrodite falls in love with as he was playing music with his lyre. He initially thinks that she is a Athena, however she convinces him that she’s just the daughter of a noble man not a goddess. 17. Who does Aphrodite pretend to be? Why does she disguise her identity? She pretends to be an unmarried maiden, the daughter of Otreus. She disguises her identity in order to test for him xenia as well as not to frighten him. 18. Who will their son be? What must Anchises do with him? Aeneas He must accept him into the house as he becomes older and he shall never reveal the name of the mother. Also he must take him to the ilium. 19. Why does she not make Anchises immortal? So he would not suffer with endless pain and also because he does not want to. 20. What prohibition does she issue? Does Anchises obey her? Do not tell him the truth about his birth mother No. 21. What happens to “the mortal/who mates with a goddess undying” in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite . Give at least one other example of a mortal who suffers from an affair with a goddess. He can never be a man again and Zeus strikes him with a lightning bolt and leaves him to be crippled. Orion, Eos and Ishtar Artemis 22. In what area(s) does Artemis exercise power? What visual signs distinguish her in art? She is the Goddess of Wild animals and Fertility. She is young with clothes and has a bow. 23. What are Artemis’ historical origins? What is her title in Homer? How has she changed by the classical period? She originates from the Hunting Period. Her title in Homer is Potnia Theron She is the only virgin goddess 24. List three ways in which Artemis is depicted as Apollo’s female counterpart in Homer or the Homeric Hymns . Bows and Hunter She is dancing while Apollo plays the Lyre Laurel   17   25. Who is Niobe and why do Apollo and Artemis destroy her children? What does Niobe come to represent in Greek culture? She is the wife of Amphion, and she boasted about her superiority over Leto who had fewer children and she represents the suffering mother who loses all her children. 26. Who is Actaeon and why does Artemis destroy him? He is a Theban, who was destroyed because he got caught spying on Artemis as she was bathing so she turned him into a stag and had his own dogs eat him. 27. What is an exemplum (p. 226)? How is Actaeon an exemplum ? An exemplum is a model for human behavior. He is a model for sexual transgression, as he wants to marry his Aunt. Athena 28. In what area(s) does Athena exercise power? What visual signs distinguish her in art? She is the goddess of Weapons and Wars, defender of warriors, and the protector of cities She can be distinguished by her Aegis and Armor 29. What are her epithets? Pallas – city defender 30. Where was Athena’s cult especially important? What connection did she have to this place? What was performed annually in her honor here? Athens because she gave the place olives which is the basis of their economy. The Panathenaea. 31. How was Athena born? Who are her parents? She was born from Zeus’s head and her parents are Zeus and Metis 32. Name two examples of heroes Athena protects. Hercules, Perseus, Odysseus. 33. What is an aegis? How did Athena get her aegis? (There are two accounts of this.) Shield, Buckler, Breastplate 1. Given to her by Zeus 2. The Skin of a giant named Pallas 34. Who is Arachne? What does she boast? Arachne is the greatest mortal weaver and she boasts that she can beat Athena at crafting.   18   35. How does Athena initially respond to her boasting? What does she do next? She initially goes in disguise and tells her to regret her words however she denies it and therefore Athena challenges her and then turns her into a spider. 36. Who wins the competition? Why? Arachne wins because she’s a superior weaver however Athena got angry and turned her into a spider. Chapter  7  –  Myths  of  Fertility:  Demeter  and  Related  Myths   1. Find Eleusis on a map. What important sanctuary was located at Eleusis? Telestrion, a sanctuary for the cult of Demeter 2. What specific kinds of fertility do Artemis, Aphrodite and Hera govern? Artemis – Fertility of wildlife Aphrodite – Fertility of human sexuality Hera – Fertility of family and marriage 3. Who is Demeter’s daughter? What is another name for her? Demeter’s daughter is Persephone or Koré 4. What is a wrath (menis ) story? Give one example from this chapter. Give one example from a previous chapter. Wrath stories begin with an offense to the gods, his/her anger, human destruction, appeasement that usually involves an etiology of new rituals and honors. Example: Demeter getting angry by Persephone’s abduction. 5. What causes Demeter’s anger, in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter ? What does she do to humans out of grief for her daughter? Demeter is angry because Persephone is abducted by Hades and then raped whilst Zeus approves of their marriage without Demeter knowing. She expresses her wrath towards the humans by stopping the growth of grains on earth which leads to a huge famine. 6. What does Zeus instruct Hermes to do? What prevents him from fulfilling his mission? Zeus instructs Hermes to go to the underworld and bring Persephone back from the underworld however Persephone is not able to leave permanently as Hades tricks her in eating a pomegranate. 7. How does Zeus ultimately resolve the conflict? What does Demeter do in response? Persephone must spend one third of the year with Hades. Demeter agrees.   19   8. What is an allegory? How can the Homeric Hymn to Demeter be understood as an allegory? An allegory is a story that reveals a hidden message. Homeric Hymn to Demeter could be understood as an allegory as it explains how 1/3 of the year there are no grains (in winter), which could be the time when Persephone spends time in the underworld. 9. How is Persephone’s experience like that of Greek girls (parthenoi )? Girls were getting married at the age of fourteen to much older men and the moment they lose their virginity is like the loss of their childhood. 10. Who are Isis and Osiris? Identify three points of similarity between their story and that of Demeter and her daughter. They are siblings, who are gods of ancient Egypt. Both Isis and Demeter had to search for someone they loved and each story is an allegory for annual fertility and dying god story. 11. Who is Adonis? What is his relationship to Aphrodite? Son of Myrrhia who was impregnated by her own father and later turned into a tree by Aphrodite. He was the Aphrodite’s mortal lover, however is killed by a boar even after she warns him about it. 12. Who is Dumuzi? What is his relationship to Inanna? Inanna is the goddess of fertility, and Dumuzi is her husband. As Inanna goes to the underworld, she can only return in the exchange of someone else and she decides to pick Dumuzi, as he was the only person who did not miss her. 13. Who is Attis? What is his relationship to Cybele? God of growth and fertility in Asia Minor who was beloved by Cybele however did not return the love therefore as a result of her rage she unmanned him. 14. Identify two points of similarity among the stories of Persephone, Osiris, Adonis and Dumuzi. They all have a story line of Grief, search and resurrection. Also in each of them someone dies and the earth-goddess represents the permanent fertility of the world. 15. How is Demeter in Greek literature different from Demeter in Greek religion? She is very important in Greek religion where she is a women role model whereas in Greek literature she only has one story and is subordinate to Zeus. 16. What form does Demeter take when visits Eleusis? How do the daughters of Celeus receive her? By Metaneira, his wife? She appears to them dressed as an old woman. They kindly offer her a place to work and Metaneira welcomes her into the home to take care of her son.   20   17. What task is assigned to her? How does she attempt to fulfill this task? The task was to nurse the child Demophoon. She feeds the baby god-food and places him into the fire daily to make him immortal, as well as makes him suckle on his finger instead of breastfeeding 18. What goes wrong? What is her response? Metaneira sees her son being placed in the fire and gets really mad. Demeter responds to this by getting more mad and commands her to make a temple and under it an alter where she will establish her rites so that if she carries them out, her blessings with last forever 19. What famous religious cult is founded at the end of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter ? Describe briefly what initiates experienced. Eleusinian Mysteries. They travelled to Athens, brought money and sacrificed piglets. 20. What is the purpose of these rites? All to have a better afterlife and better harvest. Chapter  7  –  Myths  of  Fertility:  Dionysus     1. Find Thebes on a map. 2. In what areas does Dionysus exercise power? What visual signs distinguish him in art? Life force, wine and possession. He is easily distinguished in art by his leopard skins and has panthers pulling his chariot. Also have bullhorns and a phallus. 3. What were his female followers called (give three names, and their meanings)? Maeneds – Raging women Bacchae – followers of Bacchus Thyiades – frenzied ones 4. Who were his male followers and what visuals signs distinguish them in art? Satyrs; half goat half men. 5. What animals are associated with Dionysus? What plants are associated with him? Animals: Leopards, bulls and goats and panthers. Plants: Ivy, grape vines   21   6. Draw a family tree illustrating the relationships among the following: Zeus & Hera; Cadmus & Harmonia; Semele, Autonoe; Agave & Echion; Pentheus; Athamas & Ino; Dionysus & Ariadne 7. Who was King Midas? Briefly recount his story. He was the king of Pessius who received the golden touch from Dionysus, after helping one of his lead Satyrs. With the golden touch he turned his daughter into gold so he wanted to get rid of it therefore he begged Dionysus and was told to bathe in the river that explains the wealth of Lydia. 8. Give five examples of stories of resistance to Dionysus. 1. Thrace, where Lycurgus opposes him 2. Orchmenus by the Minyads (daughters of king Minyas) 3. Peloponnesus by the Proteids (daughters of king Proteus) 4. Thebes, Pentheus, his cousin 5. Icaria, by pirates 9. Give two examples of stories in which Dionysus changes his form or appearances Dionysus and the Pirates – Transformed into a Lion Dionysus in Bacchae – turned into the foreigner. 10. Who wrote Bacchae and when did the author live? Euripides – 406 BCE 11. Where is the play set? Who make up the chorus? Thebes; the chorus is made up of Asian Bacchae, loyal and sane followers of Dionysus   22   12. Why does Dionysus come the Thebes before other Greek cities? To restore the slandered name of his mother Semele and because it was the only city that did not worship him 13. Who opposes Dionysus? Why? What does this person do to the Theban women who worship Dionysus? Pentheus opposes him because he does not believe that Dionysus is the son of Zeus and Semele and he imprisons those who worship him. 14. What is an agon ? Briefly, what happens in the agon in Bacchae ? An Agon is a contest; Pentheus harasses Dionysus and Dionysus messes around with him by freeing himself back and forth. 15. How does the agon scene show dramatic irony (= a discrepancy between what the audience knows and what the characters onstage know)? It is a dramatic irony because Dionysus who is disguised as a foreigner continuously refers to himself however Pentheus does not know that he in fact is talking to Dionysus. 16. What happens in the palace after Dionysus is imprisoned? What happens on Mt. Cithaeron? There is thunder, earthquake, the palace collapses and Dionysus appears however is free. In Mt. Cithaeron the Bacchae are defeating the men. 17. What happens to Pentheus in his second encounter with Dionysus? Dionysus persuades him to wear women clothing to spy on the Maeneds. 18. How is the conflict in the play resolved? What other Theban story ends with a similar fate for a young man? Pentheus is killed by his own mother. Sparagmos ending is also seen when Acteon is torn apart by his own dogs. 19. Why was Dionysus seen by Greeks as foreign, even though he was worshipped in Greece from at least the 13 century BCE? He is seen as foreign because he crosses boundaries by the way he dresses and more, and holds personal relationships with his worshippers. 20. Identify two ways that Dionysus is similar to Demeter. They are both god/goddess of fertility and help plants grow. Also they have special relationships with humans.   23   21. How was Dionysus different from the original Olympian gods to his worshippers? How was he different from these gods to early Christians? He made direct contact with them, and his worshippers as opposed to a great gap of separations felt his presence. He was different because he was seen as an evil demon. 22. What important public events were held in Dionysus’ honor at Athens? Dionysia Festival, where tragedies are performed. Chapter  8  -­‐  Myths  of  Death:  Encounters  with  the  Underworld   1. According to ancient Greeks, what caused death? Shedding blood or ceasing of breath, both, which contained the soul thus losing the soul, resulted in death or death was caused by gods or hostile forces of the natural world 2. What other names was Hades called in Greek or Latin? Why was he called by these names? Pluto (enricher) Dis, which means rich in Latin. He was often called the unseen one in Greek because they regarded him as too dangerous to call by name 3. What did Greeks believe normally happened to individual human beings after death? A soul after death can be either good or bad. Hades protects the living from the deceased 4. What sort of existence do disembodied souls lead? Disembodies spirits usually lead a dark, shadowy existence in the underworld in the realm of Hades. 5. Give an example of a positive interaction souls can have with the living. The ghosts of the Gold and Silver races were beneficial spirits 6. Give an example of a negative interaction souls can have with the living. Erinyes, souls bent on revenge on the living because they were envious of living 7. How did ancient Greeks try to ward off the dead? (Give three examples.) Customs decided to persuade the spirits that the survivor had not benefitted from a person’s death and therefore the person’s most valued posessions were buried with the corpse Dark and gloomy clothes showed the survivors’ sadness and the looseining of the hair and the scratching of face showed how they suffered to. A special house might be built for the dead. Respect might be also given through mourning songs and eulogies.   24   8. What is the Odyssey ? Who wrote it? Odyssey is the earliest elaborate testimony about the journey in the underworld written by Homer 9. Why does Odysseus go to the underworld? Who does he need to talk to? How does he summon the ghosts? To get information from the Seer Tiresias; he gives the ghosts offerings of milk, honey, wine and barley water that they want to drink. 10. What is the nature of Odysseus’ encounters with Elpenor, Anticlea, Agamemnon, and Achilles? They essentially all tell Odysseus to go home to his wife as fast as possible. Overall the meetings are full of grief and surprise over their death. 11. What were the crimes of Tantalus, Sisyphus, Ixion and the Danaids? What were their punishments? Tantalus tricked Demeter into eating a human; As a punishment cannot satisfy the gluttonous desires for food and drinks. Sisyphus cheated death and must push a rock up a slope Ixion attempts to rape Hera and is put on a burning wheel by Zeus Danaids murder husband and have to fill a trough using sieves 13. What is Elysium? Give at least one example of a hero who ends up here. Where Menelaus and Hercules go. Good place where it’s like a special island where heroes go to turn immortal. 14. What are the Georgics ? Who wrote them? Four farming poems that have to do with farms. Written by Virgil. 15. Who is Orpheus? Why did he go to the Underworld? What was the result? Someone who went to the underworld to bring his bride back from the dead however was unsuccessful as he looked back. 16. How did Orpheus die? With which god was hostile to him? Which god was he associated with? Bacchae tore him to bits because he neglected Dionysus. He is associated with Apollo 17. Does the Orphic cosmogony agree with Hesiod’s? Does it agree with other sources we have read about Dionysus? No; it says that time came before Chaos No: it says Dionysus is the son of Zeus and Persephone (he’s the son of Zeus and Semele) 18. What did the Orphics believe normally happened to individual human beings after death? Reincarnation   25   19. What did Plato add to Orphic beliefs about the underworld in his “Myth of Er”? Purgatory and Last Judgment 21. What is the Aeneid ? Who wrote it? Who is Aeneas? By Virgil, principle account of Aeneas’ descent into the underworld. He is the son of Anchises and Aphrodite 21. Name two figures who help Aeneas in his journey to the underworld. What do they do? Sybil (seer) – His guide Anchises (father) – Shows him the procession of souls going back to earth and tells him which one will be a mighty hero of Rome 22 Identify two similarities between what Aeneas encounters in the underworld and what Odysseus encounters. Identify two differences. Similarity: A friend from the past comes and asks him for a better burial; someone refuses to speak to one of them; they both encounter a parent and try to touch them Differences: Odysseus has to cross a river. Aeneas encounters Charon the ferryman. Chapter  9  -­‐  Gilgamesh:  Introduction  to  Heroic  Myth     1. What did the term “hero” mean to Greeks of the classical period? Give three examples of heroes. Hero meant any noble or wellborn male, always alive. Later on the term was used to describe noble figures from the distant past, all dead. Achilles, Pelops, Aeneas 2. What was done to honor heroes after their deaths, starting around 800 BCE? A religious cult of sacrifice and offerings began in Greece during the late Iron Age. The souls of dead were objects of worship. 3. Who was Gilgamesh? What is the Epic of Gilgamesh ? Real man who once ruled the Sumerian city of Uruk. Best remembered for the building of city walls in the city of Uruk. The Epic of Gilgamesh is a story about the Great king 4. Identify two points of similarity between the opening the Epic of Gilgamesh and that of the Odyssey . 1) Both mention about the sea, in Gilgamesh a flood occurs, whereas in the Odyssey it talks about how he had to travel through the sea to return to his comrades. 2) They both talk about a man who saw many cities. In Odyssey they wandered far, whereas in Gilgamesh it talks about a man who went on a long journey and saw the end of the earth. 5. Who is Enkidu and why was he created? How is he introduced to civilization? Enkidu was created by Aruru to be a rival of Gilgamesh and temper his spirit. He is introduced into civilization by a whore who he had sex for seven days.   26   6. How does Enkidu meet Gilgamesh? What is their relationship after this meeting? What is Enkidu’s role in their adventures? Enkidu met Gilgamesh because he heard that he would deflower a girl before her marriage and he wanted to challenge him, so he entered the city and wrestled him. After a long fight the rivals got up and filled with mutual admiration embraced one another and began a lifelong friendship. 7. Who is Humbaba and why does Gilgamesh fight him? Humbaba was the guardian of the Cedar forest and Gilgamesh fights him because he was angry that someone is in his forest and injured his trees. 8. Who is Ishtar and why does Gilgamesh refuse her? How does she respond? Ishtar is the Summerian goddess of Inanna, goddess of love. Gilgamesh refuses her because he knew that many after of yielding her, he would suffer bad consequences. She responds by getting angry and asking her father Anu, king of heaven to send down the Bull of Heaven to destroy Gilgamesh for his insolence. If not she will open the gates of the underworlds and release the legions of dead. 9. How are the stories of Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven similar? Name one way in which they differ. The story of Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven are similar because Enkidu gets in trouble and blinded by dung, and Gilgamesh goes to res cue him and cuts the monster’s neck, like he did with Humbaba. By doing this they made the gods mad but this time (difference) they determined that as punishment one would have to die. 10. What awaits humans after death, according to the Epic of Gilgamesh ? How does this compare to the underworld depicted in Odyssey , Book 11? Their souls go to the underworld, where they live in darkness and eat dust and clay clothes. 11. Who is Utnapishtim and what is his story? Utnapishtim is the only mortal who had survived the flood because the god transported them across the sea to a place where they enjoyed everlasting life. 12. Who is Siduri, and what does she advice Gilgamesh? Siduri is the divine beer maid, who convinced Gilgamesh to give up his search, accept his mortality, eat food and drink strong liquor, wear nice clothes and love his family 13. What is the common theme of the stories of the loaves of bread and the “prickly herb”? Prickly herbs grow deep in the sea and can restore an old man’s to youth. 14. Identify, in the Epic of Gilgamesh , one example each of: a wrath story, an etiological story, a dying god story, and a descent to the underworld (katabasis ) story. Wrath story: He made Ishtar mad by refusing to sleep with her so she summoned the Bull of Heaven as a punishment Dying God story: Enkidu dies from the wrath of Ishtar’s father by a disease Descent to the under world story: Gilgamesh travels across the waters to visit deathless Utnapishtim   27   15. Who are Achilles and Patroklos? What does their story have in common with that of Gilgamesh and Enkidu? Achilles and Patroklos are Greek heroes from the book Iliad. They both have a very good relationship with each other and after Patroklos dies (due to Achilles) he mourns over his death. 16. Name one other Greek myth that we have studied that closely matches a Mesopotamian myth. Give one theory to explain these parallels. The Iliad, companion and friendship. 17. In the “hero myth”, what is distinctive about the hero’s parents? His childhood? One of the hero’s parents may be divine, and they had a very unusual birth. Not much is known about their early child hook. 18. How does the hero compare physically, morally or intellectually, with ordinary humans? How well does he fit into human society? He does not fit into civilized life very well, usually leads to a lot of deaths (Achilles), prophecy of destruction, however has great strength and abuses his compatriots as well as others 19. What kinds of activities does the hero engage in? A hero breaks a taboo, goes on a quest, engages in battles and even has an amazing travel to the underworld 20. Identify two ways the hero can relate to the gods differently than ordinary humans. At his death a hero receives a magnificent funeral, and may become a god or receive honors after dying. May have divine protectors and opponents. Chapter  10  –  Perseus  and  the  Myths  of  the  Argive  Plan     1. Find Argos, Mycenae, the Cyclades, the Caucasus Mountains, Egypt and Ethiopia on a map. Which of these did Perseus found? Perseus founded Mycenae 2. What is the principal account of the myth of Io? Who wrote it? The principle surviving account of the myth of Io appears in Aeschylus’s Prometheus Bound. 3. Who is Io? What was her connection with Hera? With Zeus? Did she welcome this connection with Zeus? Io was the daughter of Inachus, a god of the river that flows through the Argive plain and a nymph of an ash tree Melia. Zeus lusted after her, even though she hates this, and Hera after discovering this tied her to an olive tree and converted her into a cow, while Argus was watching after her. When Hermes killed Argus, she had a gadfly constantly sting her.   28   4. How are Argus, Hermes and Prometheus involved in Io’s story? Argus was watching over her when she was tethered to an olive tree by Hera’s command. Zeus sent Hermes to free her and he kills Argus by making him fall asleep with a lullaby and finally when Io is free she goes to the Caucasus mountains where she runs into Prometheus and he tells her how her journey will end. 5. Where does Io’s story end? How are the Danaids connected to her? Io will wander in a magical journey and in Egypt she will regain her human force by a touch of Zeus and will become pregnant of Epaphus the future king of Egypt. Io and Zeus ▯ Epaphus Epaphus and Memphis ▯ Libya Libya and Poseidon ▯ Agenor and Belus Belus and Daughter of Nilus ▯ Aegyptus and Danaus Danaus and numerous wives ▯ Danaids 6. How does the “all but one” folktale motif apply to the story of the Danaids? Where and how are they punished for their crime? The “all but one” folktale motif applies because only one Danaid doesn’t kill her husband because he spared her virginity. They were punished by having to carry water in the underworld in leaky vessels to fill a trough 7. How might this story be etiological, about Lerna? The burial of the heads of the sons of Aegyptus is etiological to explain the origin of great swamps in Lerna at the southern edge of the Argive plain, which have “fifty heads” 8. Who is the grandfather of Perseus? What was he like? The grandfather of Perseus was Acrisius. He was the father of Danae. He was a coward and wicked 9. Who was the mother of Perseus? How did she conceive him? What happens when his grandfather discovers him? The mother of Perseus was Danae, daughter of Acrisius He locked Danae in an underground chamber to avoid his fate of being killed by his grandson but Zeus fell in love with her and came to her as a shower of gold that fell from the room of the camber into her womb. When discovered he ordered a wooden box built to place both his daughter and Perseus in it and cast it into the sea. 10. Who are Dictys and Polydectes? What is their role in the life of Perseus? Dictys is a fisherman who saves Danae and Perseus by catching the box in his net off the island of Seriphos. They lived with Dictys, while his brother Polydectes wanted Danae as his mistress however Perseus helped her refusal.   29   11. Who are the Gorgons? Why does Perseus have to slay one of them? Gorgons are monsters with enormous tusks and wide staring eyes that turn anything into stone. He had to slay one of them because Polydectes wanted to marry someone and didn’t have a horse as a gift so instead asked for the gorgon’s head. 12. How does Perseus prepare for his encounter with the gorgon? Who helps him? By advice of Athena, he goes to see Graeae, sisters of the gorgons. He asked where he could find the nymphs and they told him. 13. How do his magic implements help him in his battle with Medusa and afterwards? The nymphs gave him the cap of Hades, winged sandals, and a leather pouch to put the gorgon’s head. Hermes also gave him a steel sword and a bronze shield. He passes through the gorgons using the shield as a mirror when they were asleep and then he slashes Medusa’s head with the sword and puts the head in the pouch and flew away with his winged sandals. 14. How does he defeat Polydectes? He walks into the palace, takes the head out of the pouch, looks away and Polydectes and his friends turn into stone. 15. What is the principal account of the story of Perseus and Andromeda? Who wrote it? Metamorphoses – Ovid 16. Who is Andromeda? Why is she in danger? How does Perseus help her? Daughter of Cepheus, Perseus sees her chained to a rock about to be devoured by the sea monster Ceto. She was in danger because Andromeda’s mom said she was more beautiful than the Nereids, and they complained to Poseidon who sent a flood and a sea monster against land. Only the sacrifice of the king’s daughter would prevent destruction. 17. What was created by the severed head of the monster? Reptiles from the blood that dripped from the severed head. 18. How does Acrisius die? Acrisius knew that his grandson Perseus would kill him so he ran to Thessaly. Perseus one day entered an athletic competition in Thesally, he threw the discus but the wind blew it so astray that it struck Acrisius’ foot and killed him. 19. What happens to Perseus, Andromeda, Cepheus, Cassiopeia and Ceto, after their deaths? Athena places Perseus and Andromeda among the stars along with Cepheus, Cassiopeia and Ceta.   30   20. What is a “girl’s tragedy” story? Give an example from this chapter. A girl’s tragedy is a folktale pattern that contains these elements: Prohibition Seclusion Violation of the prohibition Threat of punishment or death Liberation The story of Perseus at the beginning talks about his mother Danae and how she is prohibited to marry because of the oracle, and then she is secluded from the world by her father. Then Zeus impregnates her (violation) so Acrisius sends her in a box in the sea (Threat of death) Then Dictys liberates them. 21. What does Perseus’ story have in common with those of other Greek legendary heroes, like Achilles or Hercules? That he returned after a dangerous quest to rule over his people, beget a dynasty and was remembered forever. 22. Identify three folktale motifs in the story of Perseus. 1. Maiden was in trouble because of a monster 2. Hero who saves her 3. Monster is a snake-dragon 23. What was “Gorgo” before the myth of Perseus? What was her function? A demon with staring eyes; it was apotropaic (meant to ward off evil) Chapter  11  –  Oedipus  and  the  Myths  of  Thebes     1. Find Phoenicia, Crete, Thebes, Mt. Cithaeron, Athens, Corinth, Delphi and Argos on a map. 2. What is unique about the city of Thebes in Greek legend? There are two versions of its founding. Cadmus found it while waiting searching for his sister. Delphi tells him to follow a cow with special markings and build a city where the cow will lay down. 3. Why was Cadmus traveling around the Mediterranean? To look for his sister 4. Where does he go for information about his quest? What is he told to do? To Delphi, the Pythia tells him to give up and follow a cow and he ends up finding Thebes. 5. Describe, briefly, the creature he slays. How does this creature kill his companions (identify three different ways)? How does Cadmus finally defeat it? A Dragon 1. Snapped in his jaw. 2. Crushed in his embrace 3. Killed with his poisonous breath Cadmus throws a javelin through its neck into a tree.   31   6. Explain how this exploit makes Cadmus a typical Indo-European hero. Name two other heroes who perform a similar exploit. He killed a serpent just like Zeus (Typhoeus) and Perseus (Medusa) 7. Who advises him after the fight and what happens as a result of her advice? Athena tells him to plant the teeth and they become men. They all fight but only 5 remain (spartoi = sown men) 8. Who is Harmonia and what does Cadmus have to do in order to marry her? What are Harmonia’s two wedding gifts? Harmonia is the daughter of Aphrodite and Ares He has to serve Ares for 8 years in penance of killing Ares’s dragon. Hephaestus makes a necklace and a robe that are cursed to bring disaster to future generations. 9. Identify Ino, Semele, Agave, and Actaeon and briefly describe their fates. The first three children, and Acteon is a descendant of Cadmus and Harmonia. They were cursed by the wedding gift passed down to later generations. Ino kills her own children, Semele is burned to a crisp, Agave rips her son Pentheus apart and Actaeon was eaten by his own dogs. 10. How are Amphion and Zethus related to Cadmus? What do they do for Thebes? How did ancient authors reconcile this story with the story of Cadmus? They each have stories of finding Thebes. Amphion and Zethus were the ones who built the walls of Thebes. The 2 stories were connected through Lauis. By saying that Cadmus had founded the higher city on the Acropolis called the Cadmeia. Amphion and Zethus had walled the lower city, named it after Thebe the wife of Zethus 11. Who is Antiope? Briefly recount her story. Identify two story patterns that can be found in the myth of Antiope, Dirce, Amphion and Zethus. She was the mother of Amphion and Zethus. Her aunt Dirce treated her poorly, so she fled to a cave and gives birth to them, and these two sons avenge her by killing Antiope and Dirce 12. Draw a family tree of Jocasta, Creon, Laius, Oedipus, Antigone, Eteocles and Polynices. Briefly identify each of these figures.   32   13. What prohibition does Laius violate? How does he try to escape the consequences? What goes wrong? He violates Xenia, he took his boy toy Chrysippus from his father Pelops and rapes him. Pelops curses him and the oracle tells him that his son will kill him. He tries to refrain from having sex with Jocasta but gets drunk and has sex with her. 14. What is the most famous version of the story of Oedipus? Who wrote it? Oedipus the King – Sophacles 15. What does Oedipus do to become king of Thebes? What goes wrong under his reign? Answers the sphinx’ riddle. There is a plague due to miasma (blood pollution) 16. Where does he go for information about the crisis? What does he tell the Theban citizens? He first consults Tiresias; he tells the Theban citizens that the man who caused this plague will be kicked out. 17. What does he learn, in the course of the play, about his own identity? What does he do when he learns this information? What does Jocasta do? He learns that he is h
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