Geology 118 Final Review 05/06/2013
Topic #27 Climate Change I
Definition of climate?
Weather at a particular region over a large period of time
Why is the study of climate change important?
Impact on sea level, agriculture, population migration, predict future climate
What is the impact of global warming or global cooling (i.e., Ice Age) on sea level?
If glaciers melt ▯ sea levels rise ▯ flooding
Ice Age ▯ more glaciers ▯ reduced sea level
What effects do glaciers have on Earth's landscape and flooding?
Creates lakes, flattens landscapes or carves mountains, rich soil
What two gases represent ~99% of Earth's atmosphere? What is the approximate atmospheric abundance
of CO2, <1% (0.04%)
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
Trapping of heat in lower atmosphere
What two types of electromagnetic radiation are involved in the Greenhouse Effect and how do the gases,
CO2 and H2O, play a role in the Greenhouse Effect?
Visible light & infrared radiation
CO2 and H2O are greenhouse gases that trap the infrared radiation which causes heating of the earth
Know how the following processes affect atmospheric abundance of CO2: volcanism, chemical weathering
(i.e., dissolving minerals and rock), burning fossil fuel, photosynthesis and respiration. Volcanism: increases CO2
Chemical weathering: decrease CO2
Burning fossil fuels: increases CO2
Photosynthesis: decreases CO2
Respiration: increases CO2
Topic #28 Scientific Writing
What are the two major goals in effective communication involving scientific writing?
Communicate clearly and efficiently
Topic #28a Climate Change II
Know the general nature of Earth's climate (hothouse vs. icehouse) and the major factor controlling Earth's
climate for the following intervals of geologic time:
Early Earth (4.6 ~3.5 billion years ago, early Precambrian): increased CO2 hot house climate, due
to many more volcanic eruptions
End of Paleozoic (~250 million years ago, m.y.a.): ice house, climate lots of glaciers on land, single
End of Mesozoic/beginning of Cenozoic (100 50 m.y.a.): increased CO2 hot house,
volcanism caused increase in CO2 levels
Middle to End of Cenozoic (50 2 m.y.a.): decreased CO2 progressive cooling drop in CO2 due to
chemical weathering due to formation of Himalayas, also >marine planets = >photosynthesis =