LAST 170 Midterm Exam: Wednesday, March 19 and Friday March 21, 2014.
Wednesday Usual class time 34pm
•Students with last names beginning with AK will take the test in 141 Wohlers Hall
•Students with last names beginning with LZ will take the test in 114 David Kinley Hall
•Please bring a #2 pencil.
Friday: students will go to their scheduled discussion sections and take the second part of
Shortessay answer: concisely answer the following questions. Be prepared to answer all
ACTUAL QUESTIONS FOR THE EXAM
1) Consider what you learned in lecture and from the readings by Marisol de la Cadena,
Guimarae ̃s, Goldstein,Vaughan, and Stout. Discuss how people are racialized in Brazil, Cuba, and
Bolivia (de la Cadena focuses on Peru, but for the sake of an argument apply her ideas to the
general Andean Region that includes both Bolivia and Peru). Be sure to cover the following
a) What historical conditions explain the high level of inequality in these countries? Why are
socioeconomic conditions connected to race?
b) Provide one concrete example from the readings that shows how constructions of race in
Brazil, Cuba or the Andean Region are similar, and one concrete example from the readings to
show how they are different.
c) Discuss how media is used as part of the process of racialization. Use one example provided in
class to explain your argument.
2) Considering the movie “Even the Rain” and from the readings by Barron, Thomson, Spronk,
and Monasterios discuss the connections between extraction process, natural resources and social
movements in Bolivia.
a) Explain what the connections are between the extraction process, natural resources and social
movements in Bolivia? Use one example from the movie and one example from the reading to
develop your answer.
b) Explain the origin of the “water war”, the different positions regarding the use/property of
water, the different actors/social groups and their different positionalities.
c) Considering the movie “Even the Rain” and Trouillot’s (1995) reading about the socio
historical process and historical narratives, discuss an example from the movie in which the
“cycle of silence” has a repercussion in the historical
Format: 3 miniessay answer; 4060 multiplechoice questions; 510 fillintheblank
questions; and 510 twosentence answers.
narrative that’s articulated in the movie. How does that “moment of silence” impact the characters
in the movie?
3) Consider what you learned in lecture and from the readings by Brenner, Vaughan and Stout and
discuss Revolutionary Cuba. Be sure to cover the following issues:
a) What historical conditions (long term and short term) lead to the Triumph of the Revolution on
January 1, 1959?
b) Explain two concrete changes enacted by the Revolutionary government during its first years
of existence and explain two examples of some of the early and recent challenges of the
c) Discuss how tourism becomes a twofold space to continue and contest the revolution. Two Sentence Answers: Identify the person/ terms. Your first sentence should
answer who or what the term refers to. Your second sentence should point out one
reason why this person/term is significant to our class.
a) Raul Castro: Current president of Cuba replacing his brother Fidel. Raul, Fidel, and
Ernesto ‘El Che’ Guevara were central figures in the Cuban Revolution, and its triumph
b) Mercantilism: Economic theory that proposes that a nation’s wealth should be
measured in bullion, that a country should export more than it import, and that promotes
active state participation, strong sea power, and the possession of colonies for economic
growth. The Spanish empire during the colonial period was guided by this orientation.
c) Potosí Mining city in Bolivia, exploited since the early 1600s by colonial Spain.
Today, Potosí is tremendously poor and its mining continues under horrible working
Discuss paradoxes and four orientations with which John Chasteen characterizes the
changing foci of U.S. thinking on Latin America from the early 20th century to the
• Young and Old
• History that is both tumultuous and stable
• Independent and dependent
• Prosperous and Poor
• Multiethnic countries but racism still exists
Racial/Cultural and Environmental Determinism
• Racist explanations
• indigenous population and racial mixture creates a bad population
• region needed European immigration
• Spanish catholic heritage inferior to English protestant
• weather is bad for economic activity and progress
• Underdeveloped countries need to be modernized and become developed
• Underdeveloped countries are dependent on developed countries
• Contemporary perspective on latin America
• Recognizing cultural complexities of Latin America
• Identify politics: gender, race, class, religion, national and regional identities • How do these become meaningful to people?
Discuss Michel Rolph Trouillot’s theory of historical narratives
•History understood as the distinction and overlap of the socio historical process (“what
happened”) and the narratives about it (“what is said to have happened”).
Which of the following was NOT argued by Michel Rolph Trouillot in regard to historical narratives?
1. a) We are all simultaneously historical actors and historical narrators.
2. b) History is stored in our collective memories, ready to be accessed at will.
3. c) Historical narratives set up a field of power relations that influence what we consider to be
relevant or trivial in past and present social relations.
4. d) There are many moments of silencing of historical events in the process of creating, archiving,
and narrating historical “facts”
So what is history for Trouillot?
• a) An objective, accurate account of the sociohistorical process (“what happened”).
• b) A subjective account, presented as a historical narrative (“What is said to have happened”).
• c) The dialectic between the sociohistorical process and historical narratives.
• d) None of the above.
•Three capacities people have within sociohistoric processes: actors people “doing”, in
constant interface with a context, agents – people in relation to other people, subjects
people “experiencing,” with the capacity to give voice to their experiences and
Cycles of silences
Fact creation (the making of sources)
Fact assembly (the making of archives)
Fact retrieval (the making of narratives)
Retrospective significance (the making of history in the final instance)
Discuss the premises of mercantili