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International Relations FINAL EXAM [REVIEW NOTES] -- 4.0ed this exam!

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University of Illinois
Political Science
PS 280

PS 280 Final Exam Notes PS 280 Week 10 th Lecture; October 29 International Political Economy Commercial liberalism (free trade) vs. neomercantilism (protectionism – you protect your own economy) Scotch-whiskey: Johnnie Walker − Some people are thinking of getting out of the European Union, but there are benefits for being in JW’s Free Trade Benefits in EU − Access to European markets − EU strength in trade negotiations to access new markets − When the EU makes deals, Johnny Walker makes deals (through free trade policies; all about Johnny Walker making more money) JW’s Trade Protections in EU − To sell scotch in the EU must be... • …Distilled in Scotland • …Matured for at least 3 years • …Cannot be sweetened or flavored So we (asAmericans or Koreans or whatever cannot compete; Johnny Walker dominates the market in the EU) Commercial Liberalism − Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776) o Absolute gains – are you better off? More good that comes? • Adam Smith believes we are all better off if we practice commercial liberalism o “Laissez-Faire” – hands off; government stays out of economy and lets things happen naturally o Comparative advantage: David Ricardo • Argues for free trade, but also says that we should specialize in what we do best  When we specialize, profits are higher and we’re more efficient o “Externalities” = political freedom and peace • As you practice free trade, you also tend to get more positive things (more freedom and more peace) o Regional trade agreements: European Union (27), NAFTA (3), CAFTA-DR (7),ASEAN (10), Mercosur (4 plus “associate members”) • There are strong pockets in the world where they believeAdam Smith was right (they deal with free trade) Neo-Mercantilism − “Protectionism” • Alexander Hamilton (believed it is appropriate and necessary for governments to protect their own economy; your job is to protect your native citizens and native economy; as a government entity you SHOULD intervene to make sure your native producers will be winners on the global market) − Governmental intervention − Relative gains: measure my success based on everyone else; this school of thought is very comparative − Tariffs: a tax on an incoming good (you make that good more expensive in your market) Trade Tricks/Nontariff Barriers − Quotas: peanuts and sugar • How much you can sell in a certain market − VERs: voluntary export restraint • Not a tariff, but not exactly “voluntary” o Kind of like a threat to the competition (that you’ll do something stronger) − Health and safety codes: say they’ll buy one’s stuff as long as it’s safe • But we get to decide what is “safe” and what isn’t; can slow down the access of a foreign product into your market because you can keep it caught up in being checked; not a tariff but it can still protect your domestic market − Transportation costs: now have to sell something for more because it took so much money to get it wherever it is (so you increase again the cost of a foreign good) − Antidumping duties: says you’re shipping too much to us and selling in our markets, so we put an antidumping duty that makes that good cost more Collective Goods and Free Trade − GATT: agreed to in 1947 – GeneralAgreement on Tariffs and Trade • Most favored nation – you should treat every country as if they are your most favored nation • Reciprocity – if I treat you well in my trade policies, you should treat me well; let good things build between good things • Non-discrimination – you don’t pick on or isolate a country; everyone should be your most favored nation • “Rounds” – the GATT met in “rounds” (extended meetings that occurred over months and years; after each “round”, the world became more and more free trade oriented; the GATT fostered free trade and its final round created the World Trade Org) − WTO: 1995 • 159 members (640 employees): Geneva • Dispute Settlement Board: this is an in-house court for the WTO Discussion- November 1 st Reading: “The French Flicks and American Beed Standing in the Way of a US-EU Trade Deal” by Park MacDougald Cultural subsidies in France o Unemployment benefits • Actors • Musicians • Artists o Taxes on movie tickets and TV channels Summary Public/Collective Goods o Definition • Non-Exclusive(everyone has access to it) & Non-Rival(My access doesn’t take any away from you) i.e. Fresh Air is a public good (everyone can breathe in/out fresh air & one person breathing fresh air is not taking it away from someone else. o Free Rider problem is concerning PS 280 Week 11 Lecture; November 5 th Globalization and its Economic Impact Expansions of Free Trade, information, and internationalization of production. Expansion of “Middle Class” o i.e. India & China: One way we measure the growth of the middle class, is by the ability to purchase a vehicle. Unequal Growth o i.e. Sub-Saharan Africa : Wide Gap Between Rich and Poor More Economics Opportunities and Competition o Thomas Friedman, World is Flat:As long as we have internet access and can get online, we can get anywhere. • i.e. When Aaron Rogers fractured his collar bone and has an x-ray done, why not take an x-ray and send it as an x-ray as a PDF to a doctor in India. The specialized doctor can make the diagnosis from there. o Kenyan marathoners: Kenya is an incredibly poor country. The winners of the NY Marathon were both Kenyans and in Chicago & NY many Kenyans filled the top spots. It’s because they have global opportunities and global agents to say “Hey, I’ll train you and get you to win.” o University Education: International students are coming to US schools, especially U of I because we have a comparative advantage Facets of Globalization Homogenization of world culture o “Americanization” of the world: Finding a Pizza Hut attached to a historic building in Brussels, Belgium o More English language speakers o More energy demands = more climate change Global Health: Potential for rapid expansion of epidemics o So many more people are traveling on a consistent basis that makes disease spread much quicker “Revolution”: Political Empowerment Through Information-Sharing o Threats to control: China & Cuba(Many firewalls o Obama Campaign in 2008: Dems were much more successful by using texting and other means of communication to get people to donate more o Twitter in Iran: In 2009, Twitter was much more difficult to shut down in Iran and gave students the opportunity to revolt against the government o Egypt and Tunisia “Virtuality”: Creation of anonymous worlds and identities o Al Qaeda o “Anonymous” : Group that becomes empowered because of global IT reach International Monetary Policy (Monetary Policy is a way to promote peace) Historical Background o Inter-war(WWI and WWII) instability • No Hegemon: The UK leadership is diminishing and the US leadership is absent. No Hegemon = No Economic Strength • High Tariffs & High Inflation: In the US, there was the Smoot Hawley tariffs that taxed every imported good • Drive for economic self-sufficient: Fascism o Bretton Woods 1944 • Led byAmericans, it was a meeting of the world leaders where they came to the conclusion economic cooperation helps foster peace • Solution for No Hegemon: US will be the hegemon and there will be a fixed exchange rate. $35 = 1 ounce of fold “Gold Standard” • Solution 2: World Bank International Monetary Fund World Bank(Bretton Woods Institutions) *The World bank is governmentally run, not a private bank* o President Jim Yong Kim (American?) o Goal=Poverty Reduction • Long-term loans • Primary school education • Aids relief • Gender equity • Sustainable development o Critiques • Doesn’t live up to its goals by lending money to dictators in the past and they have used it to go against human rights • dictators using money to grow their economics while polluting their countries • world bank loans were used to improve their military International Monetary Fund (IMF) (Bretton Woods Institutions) o Managing Director: Christine Lagarde (European) o Role: Currency Stability & Development o Critique: “ StructuralAdjustments” • Twisting the recipients arm: “get your financial needs in order” th Lecture; November 7 Monetary Policy 1971: Gold Standard Ends o Nixon unilaterally Withdraws • Nixon realizes the US can longer back gold because of the great costs of the Great Society programs and Vietnam War o “Nixon Shock Floating Exchange Rate Central Banks(help to control what currency s worth) o Federal Reserve(US) • Chairman: Ben Bernacke • Nominee: Janet Yellen • 4 year terms; Senate confirmation • Job: Make sure our economy is strong and keep it under control o European Central Bank o New era of monetary policy? • Bush & Obama “bailouts” • Germany dominates EU • Cyprus: Cyprus banking system crashed and once again Germany makes a loan to Cyprus to prevent destructive damage to the Euro, but places severe restrictions on how it can be used. European Union Basics o Created to develop peace and prosperity and make it that much more difficult for the countries to go to war by connecting the economies o Largest free market in the world(27): 30% of the world GDP o World’s most integrates International organization o “EURO” in 17 EU States Evolution of EU o European Coal and Steel Community; 1951 • France, Germany, Italy and Benelux States(Belgium, Netherlands, & Lux Bourg) • Have free trade for coal and steel because it is very important for war o Treaty of Rome; 1957 • Common Customs Union: Rules placed on all important • CommonAgricultural Policy(CAP): Very well protected and makes it difficult for US farmers to sell/trade in EU • Common Internal Market: Beginning of free trade in EU • Economic & Monetary Union: Common currency is creates o Singe European Act; 1985 • “European Community”: We want to have free trade among our members in our community by 1992 o MaastrichtAgreement(Nov 1, 1993) • Three Pillars Economic and Monetary Union: Serious about getting a common currency, by 2000 the euro is created and in place Common Foreign & Security Policy (CFSP): Want the EU to speak together and united on foreign policy issues Common Judicial/Criminal Solutions: Courts that will resolve EU issues between countries • Lisbon Treaty (December 2009) : Tries to make CFSP stronger EU Institutions o High Rep(High Representative for the Union for EU ForeignAffairs and Security Policy) • Current: CatherineAshton • Job: to promote CFSP • Lisbon Treaty gave her larger EU diplomatic corps o Councils of Ministers • Foremost Legislators, make the laws for the EU • Institution located in Brussels, Belgium (also where NATO is located) o European Commission • 18,000 “Eurocrats”(Like Bureaucrats) • Job: Implement legislation • Located in Brussels, Belgium o European Court of Justice(27 Judges) • Located in Luxembourg city o Europeans Parliament • 754 members (elected and run through a party from their home country) • Mostly deal with budgetary matters Trends in EU Integration o Euro-Optimists • Success of Economic trade integration: Having a common currency has kept peace • EU Peacekeeping: Many operations of peacekeeping currently going on showing that Europe has come together as a single entity • European DefenseAgency: Joint military purchases that attempt to deal with a problem(shows that EU is aware of its challenges and attempts to deal with them) • CatherineAshton: Empowered by Lisbon Treaty(once again shows the EU can solve a problem) o Euro-Pessimists • Little ‘c’(common) in CFSP (Iraq, Libya, andAfghanistan): When you look at the conflicts in the three stated countries, there has not been a common foreign and security policy on these countries. Differences between the countries. This shows how difficult CatherineAshton’s job can be. • Low Defense Spending: If you think about Europe trying to project force, it is mostly led by one country. Need European force capabilities. • Rich vs. poor/debt crisis: PIIGS (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Spain); Cyprus • United Kingdom? Wanted to get out of EU Discussion; November 9 th Reading: Reform in Saudi Arabia by Clary & Karlin Summary: King of SaudiArabia is attempting to create reform in education and economy but that are things getting in the way. Reform is based on two principles… o Education • KAUST University (15% SaudiArabian, many international students) The one major integrated University • Gender Issues(women can’t drive, universities are segregated based on gender, they can vote, they participated in the Olympics for the first time-change is coming slowly) o Economic Diversification • Risks of an oil economy PS 280 Week 12 Lecture; November 12 th EU Integration Issues Between Turkish & the EU o Turkey’s 1987 request for membership o Objections to membership • Kurds & Human Rights: • Civil-Military Relations: In a democracy, the military is subordinate to civilians. Military can intervene when national issues are stake in Turkey. • Secularization vs. Islamization: The strength of Islamic political groups has grown • Strikes on Syria: Turkey is on the border on hot spots o French, German, Danish, and other opposition within EU o Impacts NATO Karl Marx 1818-1883 Historical and Modern Relevance: Marxist movements live on in Cuba Classes of People: Bourgeoisie(rich) & Proletariats o Rich get richer and the poor stay entrenched o Proletariats are the factory workers and the Bourgeoisie are the factory owners Super-structure: The principles and ideas of your society. Bourgeoisie creates the ideas o If you work hard, you’ll get ahead o To have a god; Jesus suffered for us so we at the very last can go to work and suffer Alienation andArmed Revolution o As we work harder and harder at our factory jobs, we become alienated from our true self and who we are. o Chain of alienation: from family, from community and you ultimately never get ahead o Armed revolution occurs as force will be necessary to remove Bourgeoisie, they will not just had over the power-you’ll have to fight for it Lenin’s Imperialism o Rich & greedy countries will colonize the world, and eventually will clash with each other • This will lead to warfare, opening the opportunity for the poor to rise up and create communities. (Wealthy will be overthrown, people will live then in a much more fruitful & dignified way.) World System theory(Core and periphery) o Rich are the core and the periphery are everything else in the world • Extractive Relationship between the two: We take natural resources from the periphery and bring them to the core to change and fix Current Status of Marxism NO Revolution Problems in Practice with “Marxist” leaders o Mao: 80 million murders o Stalin: 30 million murders(gulags) More adoption of Capitalist & Democratic Principles(fukuyama): Globalization and Economic Integration o i.e. Eastern Europe, South America, India, China But…Economic Inequality Remains o Rich are continuing to get richer o This is the epitome of the Occupy Wall Street movement European Colonialism of Global South Imperialism o Realism: Prestige, Power, Profit o Slavery o Expansion of Political and Religious values o By 1914; 4/5ths of the world is colonized and controlled by European governments Impact o Export-driven economies/societies o Under-development: education and politics o “Arbitrary” Border Creation: Global north is creating borders in south o Lack of trust Lecture; November 14 h Dependency Theory Global South is “dependent” upon global north for economic growth; profits determined by global north Single product economies o Zambia: 94% copper o Burundi: 90% coffee o Botswana: 76% diamonds o No Diversification and dependent on foreign consumption “Dualism” of domestic economies o Pockets of wealth in the global south while everyone else is poor. The idea of economic stratification which does not equal economic growth Heavily indebted states to global north Tom Freidman’s “Energy Poverty” Friedman attributes the failure and struggles of the Global South to the lack of power. 1.6 B without regular energy access; sub-Saharan Africa andAsia o 56 days of power-outage annually forAfrican manufacturers: loss of 5-20% revenue o Nigeria: Only 19 of 79 power plants work o Bangladesh: 33% gain in study time with electricity Women in global south= “fuel gatherers” o Women are doing manual labor and not spending time studying and getting an education Result: Limited Global Connectivity o Can’t get online and connect with the rest of the world Challenges for the Global South Under-educated(historically) o Global North limited investment in education when they colonized the countries. Education is empowering and it leads to innovation and the creation of jobs Brain Drain: Iraq, Somalia, Iran o People go where there are more opportunities (academic, research, work). Talented people from a country who have the financial backing, leave their home country to find home within a better country that holds more opportunity Governmental Corruption: Kleptocracies o Lots of corruption in parts of the Global South  Haiti Duvalier’s 1957-1986; the poorest country within this hemisphere. Duvalier family stole and pocked money from the country  Philippines’Marcos 1965-1986 ; Marcos family stole from the county  Check out Table 5.6 in the book “Zone of Turmoil” o Wars are fought in the failed states and primarily within the Global South  90% of wars and 90% of casualties in last 60 years (Developmental Challenges in Global South) High Military Spending o Provides quick boost to economy, but long term does not create economic growth. Does not create more jobs. Gender Discrimination o Literacy Rates: Burkina Faso 29.4%(Male), 15% (Female) The “Limits” of Foreign Aid Foreign aid =military aid o Not usually just a bag of money results in weapons “Concentrates” aid: US >Israel & Egypt o We are not giving to the world’s poorest states, instead to Israel & Egypt due to Camp David Accords(fostering peace between the two countries) o 38% of aid goes to middle and high income states “Low” amount provided as % of GDP o Still not giving enough money  Scandinavian outliers are ~.9% of their GDP (which is considered a lot as aid). The US . 2% of GDP which is low, we still give the most dollar amount but not as a percentage of our GDP o More money is sent back to the Global South DeadAid by Dambisa Moya Discourages competition and diversification Encourages corruption: Kletocracies Hurts local/native economies Flipside: Bono argument, the conditions are so bad that people will die and suffer without our help, so we have to help. Discussion; November 15 Article: Progress in the Global South? : Rick Rowden, “The Myth ofAfrica’s Rise” PS 280 Week 13 Lecture; November 19 th Collective Efforts from the Global South “Nonaligned Movement” o Bandung Conference (1955): 29 states initially, want their own voice in international relations. o Indonesia, Pakistan, Yugoslavia o Avoid Cold War alliances and freedom from colonial powers UNCTAD(1964): “Group of 77” o UN Conference on Trade and Development • Need more free trade opportunities from Global South o Group of 77 is the group the world’s poorest countries trying to speak as one voice(today the number is much larger) UNDP(1965) o UN Development Program • Formal agency to help global south develop NIEO(1974) o New International Economic Order (the group of 77 in a much more formal and aggressive way) • Monetary Stability: group of 77 could not handle he change from the gold standard • Open access to global north markets: want more free trade opportunities • Industrial assistance: economic growth comes with industrial revolution • Economic Sovereignty: global south wants to be independent and they don’t want to be told what to do • ForeignAid(.7 percent of GNP from global north):needs more help from global north Prospects for Growth Growth in NGO aid: especially Gate Foundation that has a focus on helping people who are disadvantaged (looks at the recipients….but….) Bank of the South: Banco del Sur o Provided aid in Brazil &Argentina Development of “Globa
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