IDS 200 – Fall 2015
Test #2 Review
Definitions and Lists
Chapter 4 – Hardware and Software
Computer Hardware – any physical piece of technology. Includes phones, tablets, laptops, etc…
Components include CPU, RAM, Storage hardware.
Central Processing Unit – “Brains” of the computer. Selects instructions, processes them, performs
arithmetic and logical comparisons, stores some memory.
Main Memory/RAM – reads data and instructions from memory and then stores the results of the
computations in main memory. RAM = Random Access Memory
Types of Storage Hardware
• Magnetic discs (also known as hard discs)
• SSD (solid state drives) – much faster than hard discs, way more expensive
• USB Storage – flash drives. Small and portable. Optical Discs / DVD.
Types of Hardware – Client vs. Server
• A server is a computer that is designed to support processing requests from many remote
locations and users. Essentially a PC on steroids.
• Client – PCs, tablets and smartphones that access servers. Server farms are a collection of what
is typically thousands of servers.
Bits and Bytes
• Bits – The means by which computers represent data; also called binary data. A bit is either a
zero or one.
• Byte – 8-bit chunks of data.
Volatile vs. Nonvolatile Memory
• Volatile Memory – Data that will be lost when the device loses power.
• Nonvolatile memory – data that will not be lost when the devise loses power.
Hertz – unit used to describe CPU speeds equal to cycles per second.
Internet of Things and smart device
• IOT – The idea that objects are being connected to the internet so that they can communicate
with other devices, applications, or services.
• Smart device – a device that has processing power, memory, network connectivity, and the
ability to connect to interconnect with other devices and applications.
1 Operating System – A computer program that controls the computer’s resources: It manages the
contents of main memory, processes keystrokes and mouse movements, sends signals to the display
monitor, read and write disc files, and controls the processing of other programs.
List of major operating systems for mobile clients, non-mobile clients and servers
• NON-MOBILE: Windows (PCs,) Mac OS (Macintosh clients,) Unix (workstation clients,) Linux (just
• MOBILE: Symbian (Nokia, Samsung, and other phones,) Blackberry OS (Blackberry phones,) iOS
(iPhone, iPad, iPod touch,) Android (Samsung, Google, HTC, Sony smartphones & tablets)
Windows 8 ( Windows phones and tablets,)
• SERVER: Windows server, Unix, Linux.
Virtualization and Virtual Machines
• Virtualization – The process whereby multiple operating systems run as clients on a single host
operating system. Gives the appearance of many computers running on a single computer.
• Virtual Machines (VM) – Computer Programs that present the appearance of an independent
Operating system within a second host operating system. The host can support multiple VMs ,
possibly running different OS programs (windows, linux,) each of which is assigned assets such
as disc space, devices, and network connects over which it has control.
PC Virtualization and Server Virtualization
• PC Virtualization – A PC, such as a desktop or laptop host several different operating systems.
• Server virtualization – The process or running two or more operating system instances on the
same server. The host OS runs virtual OS instances as applications.
Software license and Site license
• Software license – A contract that stipulates how a program can be used. Most specify the
number of computers the software can be installed on; some specify the number of users that
can access the program remotely, such agreements also stipulate limitations on the liability of
the software vendor for the consequences in errors in the program.
• Site license – A license purchased by an organization to equip all the computers on site with a
Horizontal, Vertical and One-of-a-Kind Applications (software types)
• Horizontal – Software that provide capabilities common across all organizations and industries
(word processors, graphics programs, spreadsheets, presentation programs.)
• Vertical – Software that serves the needs of a specific industry. (programs used by dental offices
to schedule appointments, programs used in car repair shops, etc.)
• One-of-a-Kind – Software developed for a specific, unique need. Usually for one company’s
Table of Software Sources and Types (4-15)
2 Firmware – Software that is installed into devices such as printers, print services, and various types of
communication devices. The software is coded just like other software, but is installed in special,
programmable memory of the printer or other device.
Open Source software – A source code that is available for a community to access.
Source code vs. Machine code
• Source code – Computer code that is written by humans and understandable by humans. Must
be translated into machine code before it can be understood.
• Machine code – Code that can be compiled from source code and is ready to be processed by a
computer. Cannot be understood by humans.
Chapter Extension 3 – Mobile Systems
Mobile Systems – Definition and Four Elements – Information systems that supports users in motion.
Elements include being small, light-weight, power-conserving computing device that is capable of
Mobile Systems – Implications to each of 5 components of IS (HW, SW, Data, Procedures, People)
Thin (web) vs. Thick (native) applications
• Native applications – Thick client that is designed to work with a particular OS and sometimes
further limited to work only with a particular mobile device that runs that OS.
• Thin client - Software application that requires nothing more than a browser.
Quality Mobile User Experiences (3-7) – Feature content and support direct interaction, use context-
sensitive chrome when necessary, provide animation and lively behavior, design to scale and share
(display and data,) use the cloud.
Chrome – The visual overhead in a computer display
Roaming – Occurs when users move their activities, especially long-running transactions (like reading a
book,) across devices.
BYOD Policy – a statement concerning employees’ permissions and responsibilities when they use their
own device for organizational business.
Six common BYOD policies:
3 1. They don’t exist – Organization looks the other way when employees
2. We’ll be like a coffee shop – allows devices to connect to their wireless network
3. We’ll offer limited systems you can access from any device – organization creates https://
application with sign in and offer access to non-critical business systems.
4. You’re responsible for damage – Threatening posture to discourage employee mobile use at
5. We’ll check it out, reload software, then manage remotely – employees can use their mobile
device like that are PCs provided by the corporate IS department.
6. If you connect it, we own it – users that connect their devices to the system will lose them to
management. Part of the employee agreement.
Chapter 6 – The Cloud
The Cloud – a term that refers to the elastic leasing of pooled resources over the internet.
Elastic and Pooled
• Elastic – the amount of resources that are leased can be dynamically increased or decreases
depending on how much processing power is needed at a certain point.
• Pooled – the situation in which many different organizations use the same physical hardware.
Service-oriented Architecture, Web Service Standards, Web Services
• SOA – A design philosophy that dictates that all interactions among computing devices are
defined as services in a formal, standardized way. SOA makes the cloud possible.
• Web Service Standards – World Wide standards that programs use to declare what they do, the
structure of the data they process, and the ways they will communicate.
• Web Services – SOA- designed programs that comply with web service standards.
Cloud-based vs. In-house advantages and disadvantages – (Figure 6-3 pg. 152)
SaaS, PaaS, IaaS
• Saas – Leasing hardware infrastructure, OS, and application programs to another company.
• PaaS – Vendors provide hosted computers, an OS, and possibly a DBMS.
• IaaS – The cloud hosting of a bare server computer or data storage.
Content Delivery Network – An information system that serves content to web pages over the internet.
To reduce wait time, data is typically stored and served from many geographic locations.
Virtual Private Network (VPN), tunnel
• VPN – a WAN connection alternative that uses the internet or a private network to create the
appearance of private point-to-point connections. Uses the public internet to create the
appearance of a private network.
• Tunnel – A virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the
4 Public Cloud, Private Cloud, Virtual Private Cloud – Private cloud – In-house hosting, delivered via web
service standards, which can be dynamically configured.
Remote Action Systems – An information system that provides action at a distance, such as telesurgery,
or telelaw enforcement.
Chapter Extension 8 – Network and Cloud Technology
Computer Network – A collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission
Local Area Network (LAN) – A network that connects computers that reside in a single geographic
location on the premise of the company that operates the LAN. The number of connected computers
can range from 2 to hundreds.
Wide Area Network (WAN) – A network that connects computers at multiple geographic locations.
internet and The Internet – internet – a private network of networks. The internet – public connections
of network used for transmitting data worldwide.
Intranet – Private internet used within a corporation or other organization.
Protocol – for wired connections and wireless connections
• Wired: 802.3 (Ethernet)
• Wireless: 802.11n
LAN devices – router, switch, access point
Internet Service Provider – An ISP provides a user with legitimate internet address; it serves as the user’s
gateway to the internet; and it passes communications back and