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PSCH 100 Midterm: Psychology 100 Notes Exam 2

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PSCH 100
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5/8/2017 10:01:00 PM Developmental Psychology • Pre-Natal Development o Stages of Pre-natal development ▪ Germinal Stage: Conception to 2 weeks  Zygote ▪ Embryonic Stage: 2 weeks to 2 month  Embryo  Heart, nervous system, stomach, esophagus, and ovaries or testes form ▪ Fetal Stage: 2 months to 9 months  Organs mature  By the end of 3 rdmonth, fetus begins to move around  In 6 thmonth, eyelids open th  By end of 7 month, organ systems are functional but still immature th th  In 8 and 9 month, fetus is sensitive to outside sounds and responsive to light and touch o Pre-natal Risks ▪ Placenta ▪ Teratogens ▪ Crack babies ▪ Fetal alcohol syndrome  Cognitive disability, facial malformations o Critical period: Time when certain growth occurs o Newborn ▪ Vision  Have 20/300 eyesight • 7 months: depth perception  Eyes and brain still developing  Look at objects with large elements, movement, clear contours, and lots of contrast • Faces ▪ Hearing  Hear poorly  Prefer high pitch voices • Prefer woman’s or children’s voices • Baby talk or mothese ▪ Smell  Still developing ▪ Reflexes  Unlearned, involuntary actions • Grasping • Rooting • Sucking • Stepping • Babinski (Plantar Reflex) • Swimming • Cognitive Development o Development and Memory ▪ Infantile Amnesia  Early childhood memories before the age of three to four are not common • Encoding and storage processes aren’t fully developed (brain) • Infants don’t have sufficient understanding of the world to make memories (language) o Development of Knowledge ▪ Jean Piaget  Schemas • Generalizations based on experience; basic units of knowledge • How can schemas change? o Assimilation: the process of trying to fit new objects into existing schemas ▪ Ex. Dogs o Accommodation: The process of changing schemas to fit new objects ▪ Realization that a wolf is not a type of dog  Piaget’s Stages • Sensorimotor o Birth to 2 years old o Mental activity and schemas confined to sensory functions o Milestone: • Pre-operation o 2-7 years o Milestone: ▪ Symbols ▪ Animism  “I think the moon likes us. It keeps following us.”  “Clouds go slowly because they have no legs”  “Empty cars feel lonely” ▪ Egocentric  Perspective taking  “Why does the sun shine?” “To make me warm” ▪ Lack of conservation • Concrete Operational o 7-adolescence o Now they have conservation ▪ Thinking no longer dominated by the appearance of things ▪ Simple logic and operations ▪ Lack  Abstract thinking • Formal Operational o Adolescence –TILL YOU DIE ▪ Now can: Think logically about abstract ideas ▪ Hypothetical thinking • Social and Emotional Development • Adulthood Dissociative Disorders • Person experiences a sudden disruption in one’s memory, consciousness, or identity • Dissociative amnesia: sudden loss of personal memory • Dissociative Fugue: sudden loss of personal memory and the adoption of a new identity in a new locale • Person appears to have more than one identity • Dissociative Identity Disorder individuals have experiences they would rather forget • They are skilled at self- hypnosis • They learn to ‘create’ new personalities to deal with stress Mood Disorders • Conditions in which a person experiences extreme moods, such a depression or mania o Also known as affective disorders ▪ When moods doesn’t match experiences • Major Depressive Disorder o Deep sadness, feeling, worthlessness o 17% will have it sometime in our lives o Females are 2-3 times more likely to get it • Dysthymic Disorder o Sad mood, lack of interest, and loss of pleasure o Not as intense and lasts for a longer period (2 years) • Bipolar Disorders o Bipolar I disorder: a person alternates between deep depression and mania ▪ Mania usually elated emotional state ▪ Characterized by total optimism, boundless energy, certainty of having extraordinary powers and abilities, and a plethora of ideas o Cyclothymic Disorders: Patterns of less extreme mood swings ▪ Bipolar equivalent of dysthymia • Schizophrenia o A severe and disabling pattern of disturbed thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior o Disorganized through and language ▪ Neologisms (new words) ▪ Loose associations  Words put together that have weak relationship ▪ Clang associations  Similar sounding words put together ▪ Word salad
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