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Midterm

PSY-230 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Long-Term Potentiation, Aplysia, MolluscaExam


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY-230
Professor
Melissa Loria
Study Guide
Midterm

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Exam 3: Possible Short Answer Prompts
1. Describe the biochemical processes associated with LTP.
Note: This should begin with the initial communication
between neurons and finish with the creation & use of the
protein CREB. (THIS ANSWER WILL BE REQUIRED & WILL LIKELY
BE WORTH MORE POINTS)
2. Describe the use of the aplysia in scientists’ approach to
studying LTP. Be sure to mention sensitization and
habituation.
a. Aplysia (marine mollusk)
i. Used to study memory because they have only a few
neurons
ii. Scientists are usually looking at the withdrawal
response
1. Habituation
a. Not hearing a bell when it goes off
every hour after a while because you
start to ignore it
b. For the snail, it will eventually stop
receding when it’s tentacle is touched
because it knows nothing bad will
happen
2. Sensitization
a. Stay up watching a scary movie and turn
off the lights to go to bed, any/normal
noises in the house scaring you
iii. They can become the size of a human hand
b. Long term potentiation in vertebrates
i. More likely to communicate signals between those
neurons for a small window of time after
ii. Dendrite becomes hyper aware of signals yet to
come
iii. Occurs when one or more axons bombard a dendrite
with stimulation
1. Leaves the synapse “potentiated” for a
period of time and the neuron is more
responsive
c. Long term potentiation (LTP)

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i. Neurons that have been repeatedly communicated
with each other, you’ll end up seeing LTP occur
in the long run
1. Practice makes perfect - literally
ii. Increase in excitability if neurons following
repeated, high-frequency activity
1. Learning and memory
2. Hippocampus
3. Compare and contrast early and late onset Alzheimer’s
(include genetic risk factors and symptoms) and discuss
treatment options for individuals with the disease.
a. Genetic risk factors
i. Number of gene mutations in chromosomes 21, 1,
and 14 for early onset (before 65) - means you’ll
have it
1. Chromosome 21
a. Discovered because individuals that
live to middle age that have Down
syndrome will more likely (far
increased rates) develop Alzheimer’s
2. Presenilin 1 and 2
3. Between 1-5% of cases
ii. Around 95% of people have late onset Alzheimer’s
1. We know that there is an APOE gene on
chromosome 19
a. Increases a person’s risk
2. Over 2% of cases
b. Symptoms
i. Symptoms
1. Early on
a. Mild cognitive impairments
b. Similar to early symptoms of
Parkinson’s
c. Difficulty remembering appointments,
names, words
2. Later
a. Hard time doing basic tasks, such as
balancing a checkbook
b. Hard time storing new memories
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