BIO 103 Chapter 2Study Guide & Learning Objectives
By the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
• List the commonalities shared by living organisms
• Define atoms and elementsand explain their structure, including protons, neutrons, electrons, the
nucleus and electron cloud
• Describe the structure and properties of water. Define electronegativity and its effect on the properties
• Explain how the polarity of water allows it to participate in chemical reactions.
• Explain the hydrogen bond and how it affects water’s properties.
• Understand polar, nonpolar, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, and how they are all related
• Define solvent, solute, and solution. Give examples.
• Explain the pH scale and the pro