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HIS 104 Quiz: Chapter One Summary

Course Code
HIS 104
Daniel J. Gargola
Study Guide

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~ Chapter One Summary ~
o Imagine an observer using a retrospective form of Google Maps to survey the Mediterranean world
sometime between 800 and 580 BCE.
o If the technology had existed, it would have been possible to survey the vast buildings of
Babylon, the pyramids of Egypt, and the enormous armies of the Neo-Babylonian Empire,
and the even bigger ones of the Persian Empire that succeeded it.
o On the Mediterranean and in the Aegean Sea, Phoenician ships would have appeared,
dominating the main traffic routes.
o In the Levant, the observer might have watched the downfall of Israel and Judah result in the
siege and capture of Jerusalem and the exile of national leaders.
o In Greece, small cities would be rising, their expansion limited by geography.
It would have been especially hard to see that Sparta, which lacked thick walls and
large buildings, was already embarking on its aggressive program of expansion.
o Yet the Greeks were learning from the older civilizations.
o Learning, for example, how to fuse their ancient stories of the gods into a coherent form.
o And they were developing new forms of warfare, civic life, and colonial expansion that would
soon transform the Mediterranean world.
o Their society afforded space for competition, for the unfolding of individual powers, and for
the creation of institutions that are still with us today.
o In Babylon, the exiled Jews were editing and completing what would eventually become the West’s
single central account of how the universe was made and how human beings should understand it
and worship its creator.
o Though they would have been hard to discern, the roots of new institutions and beliefs were growing
and taking hold.
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